dingfu (T-beam)

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/dingfu

Terms

  • T-beam (English)
  • dīngfú (Pinyin)
  • 丁栿 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 丁栿 (Simplified Chinese)
  • ting-fu (Wade-Giles)

Note

Intraditional Chinese timber-frame architecture, refers to cross beams used on the gable sides of the building with gable and hip roof (xieshan) or with hip roof (wudian). T-beams are parallel to the roof ridge and form a T shape with cross beams perpendicular to roof ridge. The term appears in the Yingzao Fashi (1103, SKQS ed., 5.4b (?)) only. Modern architectural historians use this term to describe cross beams on the gable sides of buildings dating from the Tang (618-907) to early Ming (1368-1644) dynasties.

丁栿指四阿(即廡殿)或廈兩頭(即歇山)房屋山面承屋蓋用的梁,與進深方向的梁在平面上成“丁”字形。丁栿僅見於宋《營造法式》。現代學者將之用於對唐至明初建築物的描述。

Sources and Contributors:

T beam: (1)Guo, Qinghua. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture 中國建築英漢雙解辭典. Mulgrave, Vic., Australia: Images Pub., 2002:32

丁栿: (2)(宋)李誡編修, 故宫博物院编. 營造法式(故宫藏抄本).北京:紫禁城出版社,2009 (3)(宋)李诫编修, 梁思成注释. 《营造法式》注释. 北京: 中国建筑工业出版社, 1983:152 (4) 陈明达. 《营造法式》辞解. 天津: 天津大学出版社, 2010:13

dingfu: (5) Fu, Xinian, Alexandra Harrer, and Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt. Traditional Chinese Architecture : Twelve Essays. The Princeton-China Series. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, 353. (6) Guo, Qinghua. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture 中國建築英漢雙解辭典. Mulgrave, Vic., Australia: Images Pub., 2002:32

Annotation

丁栿指四阿(即廡殿)或廈兩頭(即歇山)房屋山面的梁,與進深方向的梁在平面上成“丁”字形。丁栿僅見於宋《營造法式》(初刊於崇寧二年,1103年)。現代學者將之用於對唐至明初建築物的描述。 梁思成在《營造法式註釋》中認為“丁栿梁首由外檐鋪作承托,梁尾搭在檐栿上,與檐栿(在平面上)構成“丁”字形。”(梁思成,1983:152)陳明達的定義與之相似:“四阿或廈兩頭房屋,承山面屋蓋所用大梁,與橫向屋架上的大梁成丁字相疊壘,故名‘丁栿’”。但陳明達的解釋未強調梁首由外檐鋪作承托(陳明達,2010:13)。同樣有學者認為“丁栿應不僅限於山面檐步,凡用於山面的與正身梁栿丁字相交的縱向梁栿都可謂之丁栿。”(賈洪波,2010:93)江南地區宋元時期井字形構架的建築,山面梁栿和順身梁栿一樣尾部插入中心柱中,在這方面有重要研究的一些學者仍以乳栿稱之。(圖)(張十慶,2015)但也有發明“丁乳栿”一詞稱呼該類構件的個例。(張亞宣,2017)

(ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and CHEN Luxi 陳麓西, ATTCAT 2018)

Broad Match: Building Frame

External relationships (1)

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dingfu (T-beam)” in Architectura Sinica last modified May 20, 2019, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/dingfu.

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dingfu (T-beam).” In Architectura Sinica, edited by . Entry published May 20, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/dingfu.

About this Entry

Entry Title: dingfu (T-beam)

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, general editor,
  • , editor, Architectura Sinica
  • Yuh-Fen Benda, entry contributor, “dingfu (T-beam)

Additional Credit:

  • Initial Research ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and CHEN Luxi 陳麓西 ATTCAT 2018
  • Editing, proofreading, data entry and revision by Tracy Miller

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