dīngfú 丁栿



  • dingfu (Pinyin without tones)
  • 丁栿 (Traditional Chinese)2
  • 丁栿 (Simplified Chinese)
  • dīngfú (Pinyin)3
  • ting-fu (Wade-Giles)
  • "丁" cross beams (lit.) (English)
  • T-beams (ATTCAT preferred) (English)1


    T-beams run parallel to the roof ridge and form a "T" shape with cross beams perpendicular to the roof ridge. In traditional Chinese timber-frame architecture, the dingfu refers to cross beams used on the gable sides of a building with a hip and gable roof (jiuji 九脊 or xialiangtou 廈兩頭; later xieshan 歇山) or the "hip" side of a building with a hip roof (Song dynasty si'e 四阿 or Qing dynasty wudian 廡殿). In historical texts, we have only found this technical term used in the Yingzao fashi (e.g. Chapter 5, 7b). Modern architectural historians use this term to describe cross beams on the gable sides of buildings dating from the Tang to the early Ming dynasties.

    丁栿指四阿(即廡殿)或廈兩頭及九脊(即歇山)房屋山面承屋蓋用的,與進深方向的在平面上成"丁"字形。丁栿僅見於營造法式》(1103,故宫藏抄本 5.7b)。現代學者將之用於對(618-907)至(1368-1644)初建築物的描述。

Note (full)

    丁栿指四阿(即廡殿)和廈兩頭或九脊 (即歇山)房屋山面的,與進深方向的在平面上成"丁"字形。丁栿僅見於營造法式》(初刊於崇寧二年,1103年)。現代學者將之用於對唐至明初建築物的描述。 梁思成在《營造法式註釋》中認為"丁栿首由外檐鋪作承托,尾搭在檐栿上,與檐栿(在平面上)構成"丁"字形。"(梁思成,1983:152)陳明達的定義與之相似:"四阿廈兩頭房屋,承山面屋蓋所用大,與橫向屋架上的大成丁字相疊壘,故名'丁栿'"。但陳明達的解釋未強調首由外檐鋪作承托(陳明達,2010:13)。同樣有學者認為"丁栿應不僅限於山面檐步,凡用於山面的與正身栿丁字相交的縱向栿都可謂之丁栿。"(賈洪波,2010:93)江南地區時期井字形構架的建築,山面栿和順身栿一樣尾部插入中心柱中,在這方面有重要研究的一些學者仍以乳栿稱之。(圖)(張十慶,2015)但也有發明"丁乳栿"一詞稱呼該類構件的個例(張亞宣,2017)。

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 32.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 李. 2009. 營造法式 (1103; 故宫藏抄本)Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 梁. 1983. 《營造法式》註釋卷上, 152.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 13.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 353.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 32.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: building frame

How to Cite This Entry

ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 et al., “ 丁栿 dīngfú” in Architectura Sinica last modified September 4, 2020, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000017.


ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 et al., “ 丁栿 dīngfú.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 20, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000017.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 丁栿 dīngfú

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and CHEN Luxi 陳麓西, entry contributors, “ 丁栿 dīngfú

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Initial research and revision by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, CHEN Luxi 陳麓西
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2018
  • Editing and proofreading by Tracy Miller
  • Data entry and revision by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Revising title statement by SUN Zheng 孫正

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