• e (Pinyin without tones)
  • (Traditional Chinese)
  • (Simplified Chinese)
  • é (Pinyin)
  • o (Wade-Giles)
  • forehead (lit.) (English)1
  • forehead tie beams (ATTCAT preferred translation) (English)
  • architrave (English)2
  • column-top-tie (English)3
  • header (English)3

Note (full)

    E is a general term for all horizontal members that connect the columns and are positioned above windows and doors.

    Based on its usage in the Yingzao fashi, we can interpret the term e in the following two ways. First, in carpentry work (damuzuo 大木作), e is a general term that refers to all horizontal elements belonging to the longitudinal frame parallel to the roof ridge (zongjia 縱架) and which join through the top or upper part of columns. According to the Yingzao fashi, e include lan’e 闌額, yan’e 檐額, you’e 由額, and wunei’e 屋內額. The term e was replaced by efang 額枋 in Qing dynasty architecture terminology, and more elements were included in the efang category. The second meaning of e in the Yingzao fashi is used in joinery work (xiaomuzuo 小木作). According to the Yingzao fashi, e refers to the top horizontal element in the framework of doors and windows. It can also be called chuang’e 窗額 (window header) or men’e 門額 (door header), depending on the position of the e.



Related concepts

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 KROLL. 2015. A Student's Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese, digital edition.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 354.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 35.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: building frame

How to Cite This Entry

ZUO Lala 左拉拉, “ é” in Architectura Sinica last modified November 28, 2021, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000114.


ZUO Lala 左拉拉, “ é.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 7, 2020. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000114.

About this Entry

Entry Title: é

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • ZUO Lala 左拉拉, entry contributor, “ é

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Initial research by ZUO Lala 左拉拉
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2021
  • Editing, proofreading and revision by Tracy Miller
  • Initial page creation by SUN Zheng 孫正
  • Adding citations and notes by CHEN Baolong 陈宝龙

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