• xiang (Pinyin without tones)1
  • (Traditional Chinese)
  • (Simplified Chinese)
  • xiāng (Pinyin)1
  • hsiang (Wade-Giles)


    1. township; an administrative unit of five li 里 (neighborhood or ward), smaller in size than a xian 縣 (county or district) 2. Generally referring to suburbs/places outside a city (Hucker 1985, 231; Kroll 2016, online edition).2

    1. 方圓五的行政單位 (鄰里),比縣小 2. 對城市外郊區等地的統稱。2

Related concepts

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 漢語大詞典編纂処. 2011. 漢語大詞典, accessed May 26, 2022.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 HUCKER. 1985. A Dictionary of official titles in Imperial China, 231.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; KROLL. 2016. A Student's Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese, accessed May 26, 2022.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

External relationships (1)

How to Cite This Entry

Tracy Miller et al., “ xiāng” in Architectura Sinica last modified May 26, 2022, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000229.


Tracy Miller et al., “ xiāng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 26, 2022. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000229.

About this Entry

Entry Title: xiāng

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • Tracy Miller and LI Zhixian 李知賢, entry contributors, “ xiāng

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Editing, proofreading, data entry and revision by Tracy Miller
  • Preliminary research CMW M22 LI Zhixian 李知賢

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