In traditional literature, the term ceyang is primarily used in the Yingzao fashi (1103) of the Song dynasty. Literally meaning “side appearance” (Kroll 2015 35, 534), it refers to the transverse view of architectural components, or architectural frameworks from the side perpendicular to the roof ridge, which is then expressed in the form of a drawing (Li 2009, 5.19b, 30.6a-7a, 31.3a-6a).3
In the Yingzao fashi, the word ce refers to the direction of the depth of the building. The basic meaning of yang is the formal appearance of an object, but it can also mean that form as expressed in drawing. Yang is therefore extended to mean a model. We also see the use of ceyang 側樣 (lit. side appearance; a rendering of the transverse frame--the structural frame perpendicular to the roof ridge) as opposed to zhengyang 正樣 (lit. main/front appearance; a rendering of the structural frame parallel to the roof ridge).
At present, the term ceyang is often used to denote the cross-section of a traditional Chinese building (Liang 1983, 5). As a result, "cross-section" has also become a common translation for ceyang. However, there are fundamental differences between the ceyang in the Yingzao fashi and the cross-section in modern architectural orthographic drawing, both in terms of the construction of the building and the representation of the building. Based on a careful analysis of the drawings and textual description found in the Yingzao fashi, as well as the Wujing zongyao 武經總要（1047), Xin yixiang fayao 新儀象法要 (1094-1098) and Xuanhe bogu tulu 宣和博古圖錄 (1123), which was composed in the same period and under the same circumstances, we argue that the ceyang is not a type of orthographic projection produced in the abstract as part of a spatial coordinate system, but is instead the side view of a structural frame type as it would have appeared to a craftsman at a particular stage of the construction process (Li 2009 34.4a-b). Hence, it is misleading to translate "ceyang" as "cross-section".4
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- 1 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 299.
- 2 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 22.
- 3 KROLL. 2015. A Student's Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese, 35, 534.; 李. 2009. 營造法式(故宫藏抄本), 5.19b, 30.6a-7a, 31.3a-6a.
- 4 李. 1983. 《营造法式》注释（上）, 5.
- 5 KROLL. 2015. A Student's Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese, 35, 534.
- 6 2021. ATTCAT 2021
Broad Match: architectural representation
How to Cite This Entry
Bibliography:BAI Ying 白穎 et al., “ 側樣 cèyàng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published April 8, 2021. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000180.
About this Entry
Entry Title: 側樣 cèyàng
Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:
- Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
- BAI Ying 白穎 and MIAO Tongxi 繆彤茜, entry contributors, “ 側樣 cèyàng”
- Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
- Preliminary research CMW 2021
- Peer review by ATTCAT 2021
- English proofreading by Aurelia Campbell Tracy Miller
- Chinese proofreading by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 ZUO Lala 左拉拉
- Data entry and adding notes and citations by MIAO Tongxi 繆彤茜
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