lánkǎn gōuchuāng 闌檻鉤窗



  • lankan gouchuang (Pinyin without tones)2
  • 闌檻鉤窗 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 阑槛钩窗 (Simplified Chinese)
  • lánkǎn gōuchuāng (Pinyin)2
  • lan-k'an kou-ch'uang (Wade-Giles)


    Lankan gouchuang 闌檻鉤窗 (“balustrade bench and railing window”) is a kind of window supported by a balustrade-like series of posts crowned with a built-in bench for leaning or sitting (kanmianban 檻面版, “railing-top plate” or “railing cap”). Outside the window is an ornate railing supported by goose-neck (鵝項 e’xiang (arched)) balusters which are topped with small cloud-shaped brackets (yungong 雲栱) that hold the support rail (xunzhang 尋杖). This is called a “cloud-bracket goose-neck link-railing” (yungong e'xiang goulan 雲栱鵝項鉤闌).

    The term lankan gouchang is only found in the Yingzao fashi (Li 2009, 7.3b-4b), where it is categorized under xiaomuzuo 小木作 (“small woodwork” or “fine carpentry”). The construction method of the lankan gouchang is recorded in detail, including an accompanying drawing (Li 2009, 32.7b). 3

    According to the description, lankan gouchuang is a window comprised of three leaves which are separated by two xinzhu 心柱 (middle jambs) and tuanzhu (槫柱 framing jamb). A pivot or hinge (tuanzhou 槫肘) is fixed on the inner jambs in order to allow the windows to be opened. Under the window, a “railing cap” (kanmianban) is installed as a bench. Tuozhu 托柱 (supporting posts) are installed under the kanmianban to support its weight. As for the railings outside the windows, “goose-neck-linked railings” (e'xiang goulan) are installed. When in use, the windows can be opened and people can sit on the bench (kanmian 檻面).

    According to the Yingzao fashi, the term lankan 闌檻 includes both the goose-neck railing (e’xiang goulan) and the sill plate (kanmianban). The gouchuang 鉤窗 can be interpreted as a window filled with a square latticework (sizhifang geyan 四直方格眼). The combination of a bench with a railing (lankan) and a lattice window (gouchuang) has been documented in Northern Song dynasty paintings and literature (Zeng and Ding, 10.13a) poetry. The earliest known image of a lankan gouchuang is in Guo Zhongshu's painting “Traveling along the River in the Clearing Snow” (Xueji jiangxing tu 雪霽江行圖) from the Five Dynasties period. An opened lankan gouchuang is also depicted in Zhao Bosu's painting “Reading in an Open Hall” (Fengyan zhanjuantu 風簷展卷圖) from the Southern Song dynasty. 4

    闌檻鉤窗是一種外施鵝項鉤闌,帶有檻面板可供倚坐的窗戶形式,在目前的文獻中僅見於《營造法式》(李 2009,7.3b-4b)。3


    從法式的圖樣和文字來看,闌檻鉤窗主要是闌檻和鉤窗兩組構件的結合。這裏的“闌檻”應指的是“鵝項鉤闌”與檻面版的組合,這兩種構件的組合在北宋時期的畫作和文獻中已有表現(曾和丁 10.13a)。闌檻鉤窗另一組成部分“鉤窗”可以理解為有縱橫交錯花紋的窗,按照法式規定採用與四直方格眼格子門的格眼接近的做法。從使用了豎向的構件槫肘來看,鉤窗可以水平旋轉開啟。完整的闌檻鉤窗形象已知最早出現於五代郭忠恕的《雪霽江行圖》。南宋趙伯骕的《風簷展卷圖》中亦有鉤窗開啟時的闌檻鉤窗形象。 4

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 53.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 433.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 李. 2009. 營造法式 (1103; 故宫藏抄本), 32.7b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 4 曾. 武經總要, 10.13a.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: architectural ornament

How to Cite This Entry

BAI Ying 白颖 et al., “ 闌檻鉤窗 lánkǎn gōuchuāng” in Architectura Sinica last modified May 31, 2023, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000208.


BAI Ying 白颖 et al., “ 闌檻鉤窗 lánkǎn gōuchuāng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 30, 2022. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000208.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 闌檻鉤窗 lánkǎn gōuchuāng

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • BAI Ying 白颖 and YANG Jingxuan 杨静轩, entry contributors, “ 闌檻鉤窗 lánkǎn gōuchuāng

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Initial research and revision by YANG Jingxuan 杨静轩 CMW M22
  • Data entry by CHEN Zhuo 陈卓
  • Entry of revised data and links by LI Zhixian 李知賢

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