Liuhe Pagoda  六和塔


  • Liuhe Pagoda (English)
  • Liuheta (Pinyin)
  • 六和塔 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 六和塔 (Simplified Chinese)


浙江省杭州市 Zhejiang, Hangzhou
  • China
  • Province:
    • Zhejiang (Pinyin)
    • 浙江省 (Traditional Chinese)
    • 浙江省 (Simplified Chinese)
  • County-city:
    • Hangzhou (Pinyin)
    • 杭州 (Simplified Chinese)
  • Political-subdivision:
    • (Simplified Chinese)
    • City (English)
  • Locality:
    • Hangzhoushi (Pinyin)
  • Coordinates:
    • Lat. 30.19805556° Long. 120.12638889°
  • Site Information

    First established by Wuyue Kingdom in 970, prior to Wuyue capitulation to the Northern Song, the Liuhe Pagoda (六和塔) was constructed to store relic and calm the tides of Qiantang River. Built on a riverbank, it also functioned as a lighthouse. The original structure was destroyed completely during a battle in 1121 (Yang 359). The tower was rebuilt into an tower-style pagoda (樓閣式塔 lóugéshìtǎ) in 1153 during the Southern Song Dynasty, and its inner brick tower still exists today. After that, the pagoda experienced several significant modifications. The tower was reconstructed both in 1573 and 1735 (Liang). During the latest restoration in the 1900, the wooden eaves and exterior structures were added to the Southern Song brick structure (Yang 359).

    The Liuhe Pagoda was built on a 0.73-meter tall octagonal brick podium. Tapering upward, the tower is 59.8 meters tall (Wang 87). Although the tower appears to have thirteen stories, there are only seven floors inside of it. Each floor consists of exterior wooden walls, an ambulatory, brick interior walls, and an inner sanctuary. The brick inner sanctuary imitates timber-frame structures. The size of its corbelled bracket sets strictly follows the standards for grade two modules preserved in the Yingzao fashi (Guo 76). Inside the ambulatory, a staircase spirals upward. All the doors and shrines are decorated with cusped arches, and Sumeru-style platforms (須彌座) are set below each shrine. The platform is curved with figures including flowers and sacred animals in Chinese tradition, such as qilin (麒麟), suanni (狻猊), and xiezhi (獬豸) (Wang 89).

    公元970年,吳越王尚未歸順北宋。為珍藏舍利,鎮定江潮,引導往來船只,吳越王在錢塘江畔設立六和塔。原塔於北宋宣和三年(1121)年在方臘起義中損毀 (杨 359)。紹興二十三年(1153),南宋朝廷於原址重建樓閣式塔,其磚質塔身保存至今。之後六和塔多次受損於戰亂,幾經修繕。塔身在、於萬歷元年(1573)和雍正十三年(1735)兩次重建 (梁)。光緒二十六年(1900),木檐和木質塔身被加裝在了南宋時期遺留的磚質結構上 (杨 359)。

    六和塔的條石塔基呈八邊形,高0.73米。塔身高59.8米,向上逐層收縮 (王 87)。雖然外部木檐表面有十三層,但塔身內部只有七個明層可以通行。塔身結構從外而內由木檐、回廊、磚質內墻和小室構成。磚結構采用仿木建築形式,其鬥拱尺寸嚴格遵循《營造法式》規定的二等材的大小 (郭 76)。回廊內設有踏道,環繞塔身向上。塔內的門和龕均裝飾有壺門,龕下設有須彌座。須彌座的磚雕刻有各式花卉和麒麟、狻猊、獬豸等中國傳統神獸 (王 89)。

    Dynasty Northern Song - Qing 960 - 1912 1

    External Links

    Works Cited

    Any information without attribution has been created following the editorial guidelines.

    • 1 WILKINSON. 2000. Chinese History: A Manual, 12.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
    • 2 楊. 1986. 中國名勝詞典, 359.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 梁. 1935. 杭州六和塔复原状计划Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 王. 1981. 杭州六和塔, 87-89.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 郭. 文物建筑保护理论的实践——浙江杭州六和塔的保护与维修, 76.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

    Architectural Features

    How to Cite This Entry

    SUN Zheng, “Liuhe Pagoda 六和塔 ” in Architectura Sinica last modified April 10, 2020,


    SUN Zheng, “Liuhe Pagoda 六和塔 .” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published March 21, 2018.

    About this Entry

    Entry Title: Liuhe Pagoda 六和塔

    Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

    • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
    • SUN Zheng, entry contributor, “Liuhe Pagoda 六和塔

    Additional Credit:

    • Initial research 2020 by SUN Zheng
    • Editing and proof correction by Tracy Miller
    • Editing by Yuh-Fen Benda

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