Lingyin Monastery  靈隱寺

https://architecturasinica.org/place/000285

Names

  • Lingyin Monastery (English)
  • Lingyinsi (Pinyin)
  • 靈隱寺 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 灵隐寺 (Simplified Chinese)
  • Yunlinsi (Pinyin)
  • 雲林寺 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 云林寺 (Simplified Chinese)

Location

  • Coordinates:
    • Lat. 30.242125° Long. 120.097605°
  • Site Information

    Lingyin Monastery sits at the foot of Mountain Wulin (武林山) next to the West Lake northwest of Hangzhou. Throughout Chinese history, it was one of the most prominent Chan Buddhist institutions in the Jiangnan region. The meaning of the monastery's name is said to be “the location of retreat for immortals” (xianling suoyin 仙靈所隱) (Yang 1986, 368). Its name was briefly changed to Cloud Forest Monastery (Yunlinsi 雲林寺), after the Kangxi emperor visited the monastery and bestowed a plaque with his calligraphy of “Cloud Forest” (雲林) in 1689 (Kangxi 28th year). According to legends recorded in textual sources from the Qing Dynasty, the monastery was founded by an Indian monk, known as Huili (慧理) in Chinese, that can be traced back to 326 (咸和元年 Xianhe 1st year) or 328 (咸和三年 Xianhe 3rd year) in the Eastern Jin Dynasty (Sun and Xu 2006, 1). This interpretation has recently been called into question (Chang Qing 2005, 42). The influential myth of Huili and his monkey may have inspired the emergence of the supernatural monkey hero Sun Wukong (孫悟空) in the folklore novel Journey to the West (Xiyouji 西遊記) (Shahar 1992, 194). Additionally, Lingyin Monastery was also considered the place of origin for the popular folklore legends of the eccentric Chan monk Jigong (濟公) (Lü 2012, 24-27). These legends contribute to the cultural richness of the site.1

    The success of Lingyin Monastery was closely associated with the changing attitudes towards Buddhism at court. In the Northern and Southern dynasties and the subsequent Sui periods, the emperors continued to patronize the monastery, developing new structures and attracting more residential monks. In Tang Dynasty, the main structures of the monastery were largely destroyed during the Huichang suppression (Huichang fanan 會昌法難). Lingyin Monastery was at its height under the rule of King Zhongyi of the Wuyue Kingdom (吳越忠懿王), who added nine multi-storied buildings and eighteen pavilions (Zhao and Huang 2016, 57-58). In the Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties, Lingyin Monastery was supported by the imperial rulers and hosted large numbers of visitors and monks. However, due to warfare and natural disasters, including fire and lightning, it also suffered serious damage in 1359, 1370, 1430, 1569, and, most devastatingly, in 1640 (Sun and Xu 2006, 14). Starting in the sixth year of the Qing Shunzhi reign period (1649), the Monk Jude (具德) supervised the resurrection the monastery, and after eighteen years of construction it reached an unprecedented scale. Visitors at the time claimed the monastery had not been this prosperous since its initial foundation (Sun and Xu, 2006, 3). Both the Kangxi and Qianlong Emperors frequently visited the monastery during their various inspection tours in Jiangnan, leaving numerous poems and works of calligraphy, and generating other legends along the way (Shen 2006, 1-25). These historic artifacts further elevated the cultural significance and national fame of Lingyin Monastery.2

    After undergoing substantial destruction during the long years of military conflict, natural disasters, and domestic persecutions from the Late Qing reign through the Cultural Revolution, Lingyin Monastery reopened to the public in 1970. The Communist government sponsored two large projects of restoration and reconstruction, in 1975 and 1987, respectively. Following the remains from the late Qing dynasty, the monastery was expanded to cover approximately 87,000 square meters (Shi 1995, 387). The Lingyinsi official website describes the modern Lingyin Monastery as being modeled on the seven-hall arrangement, which is thought to be the most common in Chan monasteries of Southern Song China (Steinhardt 2019, 172; Lingyinsi official website). The five main buildings sitting along the central axis are the Celestial Kings Hall (Tianwangdian 天王殿)—bearing the function of the Mountain Gate (Shanmen 山門), the Daxiongbao Hall (Daxiongbaodian 大雄寶殿) or the Mahavira Treasure Hall, the Bhaisajyaguru Hall (Yaoshidian 藥師殿), the sutra repository tower (zangjinglou 藏經樓) which also contains a dharma hall (fatang 法堂), and Huayan Hall (Huayandian 華嚴殿). Among these, the first three halls largely remained in the same position as their Qing predecessors. As no historic timber structure survives, the Bhaisajyaguru Hall was completely reconstructed in 1991 (Lingyinsi website). At 33.8 meters high, the Daxiongbao Hall is the tallest hall in the monastery and has a hipped roof with three sets of eaves. This building experienced three major restorations in 1952 – 1955, 1975 – 1980, and most recently in 2015 - 2016 (Xia and Xia 2018, 27-30). Inside, the current gilt wooden sculpture of the Gautama Buddha was created in 1956 following Tang dynasty style (Shi 1995, 386). Additionally, between November 2000 and October 2002, the sutra tower and Huayan Hall were both new structures added to recreate the central axis in this seven-hall plan. The Arhats’ Hall (Luohantang 羅漢堂), also built in 2002, faces the west side of the courtyard in front of the Daxiongbao Hall (Zhejiangsheng Renmin Zhengfu Website). Other important structures in the monastery include two twin stone pagodas (shita 石塔) in front of the Daxiongbao Hall, and two twin stone sutra (dharani) pillars (jingchuang 經幢) made in 969 standing next to the Celestial Kings Hall (Zhongguo wenwuju 2010, 26).3

    靈隱寺坐落於杭州西南武林山腳,臨近西湖。在中國歷史上,該寺一直為最重要的禪宗佛教寺院之一。寺名原意引自「仙靈所隱」。1689年康熙皇帝巡視江南之時在靈隱寺題賜匾額「雲林」,寺名也因此更為雲林禪寺。據清朝記載的傳說起源,印度高僧慧理創辦此寺,一說創於東晉咸和元年,一說為咸和三年。慧理與他的猴子的傳說很可能也影響了西遊記中孫悟空的形象。另外,民間家喻戶曉的濟公也可能是於靈隱寺中皈依佛門。這些廣為流傳的逸聞趣事均使靈隱寺廣富文化盛名。

    靈隱寺的命運一直與朝代更迭中統治者對佛教的態度緊緊相連。南北朝與與之後隋代間,皇帝們一直大力支持興建寺院、吸引眾多僧侶。至唐代,寺院絕大多數的建築都毀於會昌法難中。然而,靈隱寺在吳越忠懿王治下達到鼎盛期,擴建九樓十八閣。在宋、明朝時,靈隱寺雖飽經滄桑,但在統治者支持下香火不斷、聚集大量僧侶訪客。但在長年戰亂與如火災、雷擊等自然災害的摧殘下,靈隱寺經歷了五次大毀,分別於1359年、1370年、1430年、1569年與最嚴重的一次於1640年。自1649年在清順治皇帝治理下,具德法師廣受資助,帶領靈隱寺經歷18年重建修繕,終於從殘破舊象中重新步入興盛。據撰寫於康熙年間的《靈隱寺志》記載,「說者謂自建造以來,未見若斯之盛者也。」而之後,康熙與乾隆皇帝多次南巡駕臨,留下眾多詩詞、墨寶於靈隱寺,也在民間產生不少傳奇。這些歷史遺跡進一步提升了靈隱寺在全國範圍內的文化價值與名聲。

    晚清至文革間,上百年戰火不斷,天災頻發,人心惶惶,香火搖曳。直到1970年,飽經浩劫的靈隱寺才重新對外開放。共產黨政府於1975年和1987年主持資助了兩次大型修繕重建項目,將靈隱寺規模擴大到佔地面積約87,000平米。基於晚清殘存的結構地基,現代靈隱寺的規制模仿南宋時期禪宗寺院中最常見的七堂制式。坐落於中軸線上的五大建築為:承擔山門功能的天王殿,大雄寶殿,藥師殿,藏經樓並內設法堂,以及華嚴殿。其中,前三個建築物大致與晚清規制中的位置不變。據靈隱寺官網大事年表記載,因無歷史結構存世,藥師殿於1991年重新興建。高33.8米的大雄寶殿則是中軸線上最高的建築,為單層三疊重檐結構。該殿在近代展開過三次修復工作,分別在1952-1955年,1975-1980年,與最近一次的2015-2016年。殿中請放一座貼金木質佛祖釋迦牟尼像,是於1956年時以唐代禪宗雕塑風格為參照而雕成的。其外,為了重新構造伽藍七堂制式中的中軸線,靈隱寺於2000年11月至2002年十月期間全新建造了與清代規劃中不同的藏書樓和華嚴殿。寺院中其他重要建築包括大雄寶殿後天台上的兩石塔,與天王殿前始建於969年的兩石經幢。

    Dynasty Founded in the Eastern Jin Dynasty 4

    External Links

    Works Cited

    Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

    • 1 楊, 中國名勝詞典, 368.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 孙, 灵隐寺志, 1.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 中国文物地图集·浙江分册, 26.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; SHAHAR, The Lingyin Si Monkey Disciples and The Origins of Sun Wukong, 194.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 吕, 济公形象的演变及其文化阐释, 24-27.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
    • 2 孙, 灵隐寺志, 3, 14.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 赵, 试论唐五代至近现代灵隐寺建筑布局的演变, 57-58.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 沈, 续修云林寺志, 1-25.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
    • 3 施, 西湖志, 386-387.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; STEINHARDT, Chinese architecture: a history, 172.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 夏, G20杭州峰会灵隐寺大雄宝殿建筑修缮介绍, 27-30.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 灵隐寺Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 中国文物地图集·浙江分册, 26.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
    • 4 WILKINSON, Chinese History: A Manual, 11.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

    Contains artifact(s) (2)

    Date range



    How to Cite This Entry

    Song Qisen, “Lingyin Monastery 靈隱寺 ” in Architectura Sinica last modified April 30, 2020, https://architecturasinica.org/place/000285.

    Bibliography:

    Song Qisen, “Lingyin Monastery 靈隱寺 .” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published 2020-04-30-15:00. https://architecturasinica.org/place/000285.

    About this Entry

    Entry Title: Lingyin Monastery 靈隱寺

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