Painted decoration on architectural surfaces and objects, including clothing, utensils, boats, and chariots, created using polychrome colorants. In Chapter 14 of the Yingzao fashi (1103), the craft of applying polychrome painted decoration on architectural surfaces (caihuazuo 彩畫作) is categorized as a specific division of architectural works.
In traditional Chinese literature, caihua can be used to refer to the decoration of clothing, utensils, boats, and enamel. It also refers to the method of decoration applied to the surface of building components, which were controlled by sumptuary laws. An example from the Sui shu 隋書 11.218 reads: “The emperor said, “The system of forms (xingzhi) is based on this. From today it is first established and must be followed for frugality. The people who use embroidery and weaving may apply polychrome paint and gold pigment. Those ornamented with pearl and jade [should] make use of mother-of-pearl." In the Tang Liudian 唐六典 we find:“其棺椁禁雕镂、彩畫、施戶牖欄檻者，棺內禁金寶珠玉而斂者. In the Song shi 宋史 we also see: "......橫貫大木以為軸，夾以兩輪，輪皆彩畫".
We found a few examples of wall paintings referred to as “caihua” in traditional Chinese texts. For example, the Han shu 漢書" has "hua tang 畫堂" and "hua shi 畫室". Hua tang refers to the "hall of paintings in the palace," and "hua shi" means the "room of carving and painting." Tang dynasty Yanshi Gu (顔師古) commented that the "paintings" and "carvings" here should be murals. References in other literature include: Fayuan zhulin 法苑珠林 which describes wall decoration as: “如今壁上彩畫所作” and Songchao minghua ping 宋朝名畫評 where decoration on walls are similarly described as: “彩繪列壁”.
彩畫在古代文獻中又通 “采畫”，既可以指衣飾、器物、舟車、棺椁的彩畫裝飾，也指施于建築構件表面的裝飾方式。例如《隋书》:“帝曰：形制依此。今天下初定，務從節儉。應用繡、織成者，並可彩畫，金色宜塗，珠玉之飾，任用蚌也”。《唐六典》：“其棺椁禁雕镂、彩畫、施戶牖欄檻者，棺內禁金寶珠玉而斂者。”《宋史》：“……橫貫大木以為軸，夾以兩輪，輪皆彩畫。” 古代文献中有一些壁画也称作彩画，例如《漢書》記有“畫堂”和“畫室”。“畫堂” 意为 “宫殿中彩畫之堂”，“畫室” 意 “雕畫之室”，唐顏師古推斷這裡的“彩畫” “雕畫” 應該是壁畫，又如《法苑珠林》中寫有 “如今壁上彩畫所作”，《宋朝名畫评》有“彩繪列壁”的说法。
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- 1 李. 2009. 營造法式(故宫藏抄本), 2.10a-b.; 李. 2011. 《營造法式》彩畫製度研究, 76-77.
- 2 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 21.
- 3 FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 350.
How to Cite This Entry
Bibliography:REN Sijie 任思捷 et al., “ 彩畫 cǎihuà.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 15, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000004.
About this Entry
Entry Title: 彩畫 cǎihuà
Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:
- Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
- REN Sijie 任思捷 and YANG Wantian 楊莞闐, entry contributors, “ 彩畫 cǎihuà”
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- Initial research and revision by REN Sijie 任思捷 YANG Wantian 楊莞闐
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