甕城 wèngchéng

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000089

Terms

  • enceinte (preferred) (English)2
  • 甕城 (Traditional Chinese)1
  • 瓮城 (Simplified Chinese)
  • wèngchéng (Pinyin)
  • weng-ch’eng (Wade-Giles)
  • jar-shaped defensive wall (lit.) (English)
  • barbicans (English)3
  • jar cities (English)4

Note (brief)

    In traditional Chinese fortifications, refers to the enceinte built outside the city gate. The shape can be square or round. The walls of the wengcheng are at the same height as, or slightly lower than, the main city walls. The battlements on wengcheng are connected to those on the main walls. There is often one gate, which is not facing the gate of the main city wall, on the wall of wengcheng. It plays a role in defending the city gates and resisting the enemy’s attack on wengcheng gate from both directions in the main city wall (dacheng 大城) and wengcheng. This term is explained in the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127) text, the Wujing zongyao, chapter (juan) 12, City Wall Defenses (Shoucheng 守城).

    甕城爲中國古代城牆防禦設施。宋《武經總要》中對其有明確定義,指圍築於城門外側的小城圈,形狀多為方形或圓形,甕城墻多與主城墻同高或稍低,墻頂外側砌垛口與主城墻垛口相連。甕城牆上一般偏開壹門,不正對主城門,較為正式的城門,如都城的正南門,往往甕城在正向和偏向分別設門。甕城起到對城門的保衛作用,並可在大城、甕城上從兩個方向抵禦攻打甕城門之敵。

Related concepts

    城墻; 城門; 月城 yuèchéng

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 曾, 武經總要(清文淵閣四庫全書本)Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 李, 中國土木建築百科辭典:建築, 358.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 郑, 军事大辞典, 623.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 黃, 宋代城郭的防禦設施及材料, 1-23.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 ATTCAT 2018Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; HUANG, Defensive Structures and Construction Materials in Song City Walls, 51.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 HUANG, Defensive Structures and Construction Materials in Song City Walls, 51.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 4 GUO, A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture 中國建築英漢雙解辭典, 63.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: Fortification Elements

How to Cite This Entry

甕城 wèngchéng” in Architectura Sinica last modified April 1, 2020, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000089.

Bibliography:

甕城 wèngchéng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 23, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000089.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 甕城 wèngchéng

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • Yuh-Fen Benda, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • JIA Tingli 賈亭立, entry contributor, “ 甕城 wèngchéng

Additional Credit:

  • Initial research and revision by JIA Tingli 賈亭立
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2018
  • Data entry, proofreading and revision by Tracy Miller
  • Adding citations Song Qisen 松奇森
  • Revising title statement by SUN Zheng 孫正

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