mǎmiàn 馬面

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000121

Terms

  • mamian (Pinyin without tones)1
  • 馬面 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 马面 (Simplified Chinese)
  • mǎmiàn (Pinyin)1
  • ma-mien (Wade-Giles)
  • horse face (lit.) (English)2
  • bastions (ATTCAT preferred) (English)3
  • projecting bastions (English)4
  • salients (English)5
  • yangma (English)6

Note (brief)

    Mamian 馬面, literally “horse face,” is a defensive structure within a traditional Chinese city wall. The mamian is prominent on the outer surface of the wall and can be taller than or equal to the height of the city wall. According to literature and archeological evidence, most mamian are solid masonry. It is named for its narrow façade and long shape like a horse head. Its main function was to increase the defensive capacity of the city wall by eliminating blind corners, which were vulnerable to attacks from the side. Mamian also played a role in strengthening the city wall. Mamian were clearly defined in texts as early as the Song dynasty and remained in use through the Qing dynasty.7

    馬面作為中國古代城墻防禦設施,指向城外凸出于城墻表面的附城構築物,高出城墻或與城墻等高。因其正視狹長,形如馬脸而得名。根據文獻及考古材料,馬面大多為實心砌築,其主要功能是以側射的方式消除防禦死角,增加城墻防禦能力,還可以起到加固墻體的作用。根據现存古代文獻,馬面一詞最早出現在宋代,文集和兵書中均有提及,有明確定義並且一直沿用至清代(沈,10.2a-10.2b)(陳,2.4a-2.4b)(范,10.18b)。7

Related concepts

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 262.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 STEINHARDT. 1999. Chinese Imperial City Planning, 7-8.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 57.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 57.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; HUANG. 2001. Defensive Structures and Construction Materials in Song City Walls, 50.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 4 HUANG. 2001. Defensive Structures and Construction Materials in Song City Walls, 50.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 5 齊. 1999. 中國土木建築百科詞典·建築卷, 226.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 6 STEINHARDT. 1999. Chinese Imperial City Planning, 7-8.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 7 沈. 夢溪筆談, 10.2a-10.2b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 守城機要.守城錄, 2.4a-2.4b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 范. 1638. 戰守全書 : 十八卷, 10.18b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: fortification elements

How to Cite This Entry

JIA Tingli 賈亭立 et al., “ 馬面 mǎmiàn” in Architectura Sinica last modified July 14, 2022, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000121.

Bibliography:

JIA Tingli 賈亭立 et al., “ 馬面 mǎmiàn.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 7, 2020. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000121.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 馬面 mǎmiàn

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛凈, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • JIA Tingli 賈亭立 and XIE Fei 谢菲, entry contributors, “ 馬面 mǎmiàn

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Editing, proofreading, data entry and revision by Tracy Miller
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2019
  • English proofreading by Aurelia Campbell Tracy Miller
  • Chinese proofreading by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 ZUO Lala 左拉拉
  • Data entry, proofreading and revision by Tracy Miller
  • Data entry, adding citations, and revising statements by SUN Zheng 孫正
  • Adding notes, bibliography, photo LI Zhixian 李知賢

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