• ci (Pinyin without tones)1
  • (Traditional Chinese)
  • (Simplified Chinese)
  • (Pinyin)1
  • tz`u (Wade-Giles)


    1. shrine; a memorial building for remembering, venerating, and/or worshiping spirits, such as nature spirits, ancestors, or those acknowledged for having made significant achievements; 2. the cultic sacrifice taking place in a shrine (Guo 2002, 27; Fu 2017, 351; Miller 2007, 32-33; Kroll 2017,online edition)2

    1. 神社; 紀念、崇拜和/或祭祀神靈的紀念性建築,例如自然神靈、祖先或因取得重大成就而獲得認可的神靈;2. 在神社舉行的祭祀 (Guo 2002, 27; Fu 2017, 351; Miller 2007, 32-33; Kroll 2017, online edition)2

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Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the editorial guidelines.

  • 1 漢語大詞典編纂処. 2011. 漢語大詞典, accessed May 28, 2022.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 27.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 351.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; MILLER. 2007. The Divine Nature of Power: Chinese Ritual Architecture at the Sacred Site of Jinci, 32-33.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; KROLL. 2016. A Student's Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese, accessed May 27, 2022.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

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How to Cite This Entry

Tracy Miller et al., “ ” in Architectura Sinica last modified June 1, 2022,


Tracy Miller et al., “ .” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published March 21, 2018.

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  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
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  • Tracy Miller and CHEN Zhuo 陈卓, entry contributors, “

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  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
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  • Preliminary research CMW M22 CHEN Zhuo 陈卓

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