cǎojià bǎiyàn 草架擺驗



  • caojia baiyan (Pinyin without tones)
  • 草架擺驗 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 草架摆验 (Simplified Chinese)
  • cǎojià bǎiyàn (Pinyin)
  • ts'ao-chia-pai-yen (Wade-Giles)
  • rough/trial assembly(lit.) (English)


    Caojia baiyan is found in Qing dynasty documents such as the Gongcheng zuofa 工程做法 (Gongbu 1773, 62.23b), Yuanmingyuan neigong zeli 圓明園內工則例 (Guan 1644-1911, 24), and Yangzhou huafang lu 揚州畫舫錄 (Li 1795, 17.7b). Literally meaning a “rough-frame verification assembly,” it refers to a trial assembly of the bracket-set construction in Qing dynasty official-style architecture (Pan and He 2005, 105). Once the trial assembly is complete and determined to be structurally sound, the bracket-set is dismantled for refinement, after which it is reassembled as the final building frame. The term is frequently seen today in the sections on bracketing found in technical manuals for recreations of traditional-style buildings (Jiangsu sheng jianwei gongcheng jianshe biaozhun ding'e zhan and Suzhou shi gongcheng jianshe biaozhun ding'e zhan 1989, 243; Zhongguo jianshe gongcheng zaojia guanli xiehui 2004, 123). Caojia baiyan is also related to the Qing dynasty term shanjia 扇架, and corresponds to the Song dynasty term zhanzhuai 展拽, as well as pinzhuang 拼裝 in the Jiangnan region. In some texts, caojia baiyan could be abbreviated to caoyan 草驗 (Ma 2003, 271).1

    “草架擺驗”指官式建築營建中斗科的試裝。“草架擺驗”見於清代文獻《工程做法》(工部 1773,62.23b)、《圓明園內工則例》(官 1644-1911,24)及《揚州畫舫錄》(李 1795,17.7b),為斗科工匠的任務之一。現代多出現於仿古建築工程文獻中有關斗栱的部分(江蘇省建委工程建設標準定額站和蘇州市工程建設標準定額站 1989,243;中國建設工程造價管理協會 2004,123)。潘谷西先生指出《工程做法》中“草架擺驗”是正式安裝前的地面試裝(潘和何 2005,105),作為清代建築術語的“草架擺驗”還與術語“扇架”、代“展拽”、江南“拼裝”相對應(潘2001,562)。此外,在一些文獻中,斗栱的試裝也被稱為“草驗”(馬 2003,271)。1

Related concepts

    扇架 shànjià

    展拽 zhǎnzhuāi

    拼裝 pīnzhuāng

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 1644-1911. 圓明園內工則例, 24.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 清工部. 1734. 工程做法則例, 62.23b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 李. 1795. 揚州畫舫錄, 17.7b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 潘. 2005. 《营造法式》解读, 105.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 江苏省建委工程建设标准定额站. 1989. 仿古建筑及园林工程预算定额 试行 第3册, 243.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 中国建设工程造价管理协会. 2004. 建设工程造价与定额名词解释, 123.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 马. 2003. 中国古建筑木作营造技术, 271.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: building frame

How to Cite This Entry

Bai Ying 白穎 et al., “ 草架擺驗 cǎojià bǎiyàn” in Architectura Sinica last modified November 28, 2021, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000194.


Bai Ying 白穎 et al., “ 草架擺驗 cǎojià bǎiyàn.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published April 8, 2021. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000194.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 草架擺驗 cǎojià bǎiyàn

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • Bai Ying 白穎 and MIAO Tongxi 繆彤茜, entry contributors, “ 草架擺驗 cǎojià bǎiyàn

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Preliminary research CMW 2021
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2021
  • English proofreading by Aurelia Campbell Tracy Miller
  • Chinese proofreading by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 ZUO Lala 左拉拉
  • Data entry and links by XIE Qizheng 謝祺錚

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