枓栱 dǒugǒng

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000019

Terms

  • dǒugǒng (preferred) (Pinyin)
  • 枓栱 (Traditional Chinese)2
  • 斗栱 (Simplified Chinese)
  • tou-kung (Wade-Giles)
  • blocks(s) and bracket arm(s) (lit.) (English)
  • bracket-block clusters (English)4
  • bracket sets (English)3
  • brackets; bracketing (English)1

Note (brief)

    In traditional Chinese timber-frame architecture, the dougong is the most conspicuous component. In general, it means a unit consisting of a number of mortised blocks (dou), arms (gong), tie-beams (fang) and inclined beams (ang). They are often used under the eaves, on beams, or on the tops of the pillar.

    According to the research of Zhong Xiaoqing, the first use of “dougong” as a compound word can be traced to the Sui dynasty translation of the Scripture on the Original Vows of the Medicine Tathāgata (藥師如來本願經). Within the sutra we read [about the adornment of the Pure Lapis Lazuli Realm]... “city-gate towers, walls and parapets, doors and windows, halls and pavilions, pillars and beams, bracket arms and blocks [bracketing], surrounding like a nets, all composed of the seven jewels” (鍾曉青,2010:113-119; T449_.14.0402a21-22). After this the phrase gradually became a set technical term, and can be found in a number of different textual sources. The earliest visual evidence we presently have is thought to be the bracketing found on the dragon-phoenix tablebase excavated from the Warring States Period Zhongshan royal necropolis in Pingshan, Hebei province (ca. 310 BCE; 鍾曉青,2010:113-119). From the Han dynasty onward we have many extant examples of dougong in the visual record.

    斗栱,又作枓栱,是中國古代建築中最有特點的組成部分,一般來說是指出現在建筑物的檐下、梁架間或柱頭上,由一些斗形構件和一些栱形構件及枋木、昂等組成的一種單元.

    在歷史文獻中,根據鐘曉青的研究,以枓栱作為名詞指代特定的對象始於隋代大業十二年(616年)所譯的《佛說藥師如來本願經》,經文中提到 “城闕、垣牆、門窗、堂閣、柱樑、斗栱,周匝羅網,皆七寶成”。(鍾曉青,2010:113-119)之後,逐漸成為固定的術語,普遍見於各類文獻中。目前最早的枓栱形象,一般認為是出土的戰國時期河北平山中山王墓的龍鳳銅案上的枓栱。(鍾曉青,2010:113-119)在漢代以後的遺存中,枓栱形象多見.

Related concepts

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 ATTCAT 2018Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 達摩笈多, 佛说药师如来本愿经, 2.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 李, YZFS, 4.11.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 FU, Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 353.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; GUO, The structure of Chinese timber architectureLink to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 4 FU, Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 353.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: Bracketing

How to Cite This Entry

BAI Ying 白穎, “ 枓栱 dǒugǒng” in Architectura Sinica last modified February 14, 2020, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000019.

Bibliography:

BAI Ying 白穎, “ 枓栱 dǒugǒng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 14, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000019.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 枓栱 dǒugǒng

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • BAI Ying 白穎, entry contributor, “ 枓栱 dǒugǒng

Additional Credit:

  • Initial research and revision by BAI Ying 白穎
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2018
  • Data entry, proofreading and revision by Tracy Miller
  • Adding citations Melanie Lu
  • Revising title statement by SUN Zheng 孫正

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