pūzuò 鋪作

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000013

Terms

  • pūzuò (preferred) (Pinyin)
  • 鋪作 (Traditional Chinese)1
  • 铺作 (Simplified Chinese)
  • p'u-tso (Wade-Giles)
  • layering work (lit.) (English)
  • bracket sets (English)3
  • bracketing units (English)5
  • corbelling (English)2
  • corbels (English)
  • layered bracket sets (English)4

Note (brief)

    Puzuo is a term primarily found in the Yingzao fashi (1103). Based on its use in this text, we can conclude that puzuo is a method whereby small components are layered one on top of another extending outward in corbelled steps, usually to support the weight of a roof or balcony. The number of puzuo is measured by the number of layers. In the Yingzao fashi the term puzuo is also used to describe a structural unit formed by this practice, and in this situation it is similar to dougong 斗拱.

    鋪作一詞,主要出現在《營造法式》(1103)中,按其定義“今以鬥栱層數相疊出跳多寡次序謂之鋪作”,可知鋪作是一種將小構件層層相疊,為實現懸挑功能而按次序鋪疊的做法。鋪作可以用疊加的次數來計量。《營造法式》中也將其引申為由這種做法所形成的結構單元,在此情況下鋪作的涵義、用法與斗拱類似。

Related concepts

Note (full)

    鋪作一詞,主要出現在1103年出版的《營造法式》中,按其定義 “今以枓栱層數相疊出跳多寡次序謂之鋪作”(李誡 2009, 9),可知鋪作是一種將小構件層層相疊,為實現懸挑功能而按次序鋪疊的做法。鋪作可以用疊加的次數來計量。《營造法式》中也將其引申為由這種做法所形成的結構單元。(圖1)6

    學者對鋪作的研究中,對於什麼是鋪作,以及鋪作與鬥栱的關係的認識並不完全一致。梁思成試圖解釋法式中“出一跳謂之四鋪作”的問題,提出了鋪作中的三個常量:作為第一鋪作的栌鬥與最末兩鋪作的耍頭與襯方頭。(梁 1983, 121)(圖2)陳明達將鋪作定義為由鬥、栱、昂等構件組合成的結構單元;認為鬥栱即鋪作,但鬥栱是明清時使用的稱謂。(1990:40)王效青和潘谷西認為鋪作除了枓栱的意思(如,補間鋪作、柱頭鋪作、轉角鋪作、外檐鋪作、身槽內鋪作),還指每朵枓栱本身相疊層數、出跳多少的次序(如四鋪作、五鋪作、六鋪作、七鋪作、八鋪作)。(王 1996, 398; 潘 2005, 260)鍾曉青則強調鋪作的基本特點是層疊與出跳(2010, 113-119)。7

    而徐伯安認為枓栱和鋪作並不相同。鋪作一詞甚少在《營造法式》以外的文獻中出現,他認為很可能是當時工匠的一種口頭俗稱,意為枓栱的做法和大小次序;而枓栱一詞則廣泛地出現于文獻之中,指代枓和栱組成的構件。李明仲在《營造法式》中模糊了鋪作和枓栱的概念差別,以鋪作一詞代替枓栱。(徐 1985, 1)儘管徐伯安的觀點頗具說服力,但以鬥栱為鋪作之明清稱謂這一看法至今仍被許多人採用。8

    還有一些學者對鋪作的演變進行了思考。陳明達認為外表看來成朵的鋪作,不過是縱架和橫架的結合點。亦即將縱架和橫架的結合部分割裂出來稱為鋪作。(陳 1981, 106)張十慶認為“鋪作”一詞即透露有井幹結構的重疊而施的構成精神,指出其起源與井幹結構有關(1991, 50)。9

    結合對鋪作的研究與理解,有些學者進一步發展出“鋪作層”的概念。這一概念的使用可追溯至陳明達,他將法式殿堂架構分解為屋架層、鋪作分槽層和柱網層三個水平結構層(1981, 132)。傅熹年在《五台山佛光寺建築》中,也將唐宋殿堂構架分解為柱網、鋪作層和屋頂草架三個水平構架層(1998, 236-237)(圖3)。鋪作層這一概念逐漸為研究者接受和使用,潘谷西並對此進行了定義,認為鋪作層是一個由大量枋子、月梁等構件縱橫相交組成的龐大木構架,再輔以衆多的栱昂和替木等構件。鋪作層既是柱框層的強有力的穩定機制,又是屋蓋層的可靠托座(2005, 27-28)。鍾曉青在討論鋪作起源時提出認為宋人所謂的“鋪作”,最初只是鋪作層位于柱頭之上的節點,後來逐漸添置于相鄰柱頭之間的枋額之上,其形式演變依附並受制于整個鋪作層的形成與發展。從這一意義上來說,鋪作層的出現標志中國古代木構建築發展成熟(2010, 113, 115)。10

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 李. 2009. 營造法式(故宫藏抄本), 4.8-9.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 2018. ATTCAT 2018Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 349.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; MILLER. 2007. The Divine Nature of Power: Chinese Ritual Architecture at the Sacred Site of JinciLink to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 4 MILLER. 2007. The Divine Nature of Power: Chinese Ritual Architecture at the Sacred Site of JinciLink to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 5 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 64.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 363.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 6 李. 2009. 營造法式(故宫藏抄本), 9.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 7 梁. 1983. 《營造法式》註釋卷上, 121.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 1990. 中国古代木结构建筑技术 : 战国~北宋, 40.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; WANG. 1996. 中国古建筑术语词典, 398.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 潘. 2005. 《营造法式》解读, 260.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 钟. 2010. 关于斗栱与铺作的一些思考, 113-119.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 8 徐. 1985.12. 《营造法式》斗拱型制解疑、探微, 1.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 9 陳. 1981. 營造法式大木作研究, 106.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 张. 1991. 从井干结构看铺作层的形成与演变, 50.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 10 陳. 1981. 營造法式大木作研究, 132.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 傅. 1998. 五台山佛光寺建筑, 236-237.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 潘. 2005. 《营造法式》解读, 27-28.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 钟. 2010. 关于斗栱与铺作的一些思考, 113, 115.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: bracketing

How to Cite This Entry

BAI Ying 白穎, et al., “ 鋪作 pūzuò” in Architectura Sinica last modified August 31, 2020, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000013.

Bibliography:

BAI Ying 白穎, et al., “ 鋪作 pūzuò.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published March 26, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000013.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 鋪作 pūzuò

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛凈, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • BAI Ying 白穎, and CHEN Xintao 陳欣濤, entry contributors, “ 鋪作 pūzuò

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Initial research and revision by BAI Ying 白穎, CHEN Xintao 陳欣濤
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2018
  • English editing and proofreading by Aurelia Campbell
  • Chinese editing and proofreading by Zhuge Jing 諸葛凈
  • Data entry and revision by Tracy Miller, Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Adding citations and revising title statement by SUN Zheng 孫正

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