鋪作 pūzuò

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000013

Terms

  • pūzuò (preferred) (Pinyin)
  • 鋪作 (Traditional Chinese)1
  • 铺作 (Simplified Chinese)
  • p'u-tso (Wade-Giles)
  • layering work (lit.) (English)
  • bracket sets (English)3
  • bracketing units (English)5
  • corbelling (English)2
  • corbels (English)
  • layered bracket sets (English)4

Scope Note

    Puzuo is a term primarily found in the Yingzao fashi (1103). Based on its use in this text, we can conclude that puzuo is a method whereby small components are layered one on top of another extending outward in corbelled steps, usually to support the weight of a roof or balcony. The number of puzuo is measured by the number of layers. However, in the Yingzao fashi it is also used to describe a structural unit formed by this practice, and in this situation it is similar to dougong 斗拱.

    鋪作一詞,主要出現在1103年出版的《營造法式》中,按其定義“今以鬥栱層數相疊出跳多寡次序謂之鋪作”,可知鋪作是一種將小構件層層相疊,為實現懸挑功能而按次序鋪疊的做法。鋪作可以用疊加的次數來計量。《營造法式》中也將其引申為由這種做法所形成的結構單元。

Related concepts

Annotation

    鋪作一詞,主要出現在1103年出版的《營造法式》中,按其定義 “今以枓栱層數相疊出跳多寡次序謂之鋪作”(李誡,2009:9),可知鋪作是一種將小構件層層相疊,為實現懸挑功能而按次序鋪疊的做法。鋪作可以用疊加的次數來計量。《營造法式》中也將其引申為由這種做法所形成的結構單元。(圖1) 學者對鋪作的研究中,對於什麼是鋪作,以及鋪作與鬥栱的關係的認識並不完全一致。梁思成試圖解釋法式中“出一跳謂之四鋪作”的問題,提出了鋪作中的三個常量:作為第一鋪作的栌鬥與最末兩鋪作的耍頭與襯方頭。(梁思成,1983:121)(圖2)陳明達將鋪作定義為由鬥、栱、昂等構件組合成的結構單元;認為鬥栱即鋪作,但鬥栱是明清時使用的稱謂。(陳明達,1990:40)王效青和潘谷西認為鋪作除了枓栱的意思(如,補間鋪作、柱頭鋪作、轉角鋪作、外檐鋪作、身槽內鋪作),還指每朵枓栱本身相疊層數、出跳多少的次序(如四鋪作、五鋪作、六鋪作、七鋪作、八鋪作)。(王效青,1996:398,潘谷西,2005:260)鍾曉青則強調鋪作的基本特點是層疊與出跳(鍾曉青,2010:113-119)。 而徐伯安認為枓栱和鋪作並不相同。鋪作一詞甚少在《營造法式》以外的文獻中出現,他認為很可能是當時工匠的一種口頭俗稱,意為枓栱的做法和大小次序;而枓栱一詞則廣泛地出現于文獻之中,指代枓和栱組成的構件。李明仲在《營造法式》中模糊了鋪作和枓栱的概念差別,以鋪作一詞代替枓栱。(徐伯安,1985:1)儘管徐伯安的觀點頗具說服力,但以鬥栱為鋪作之明清稱謂這一看法至今仍被許多人採用。 還有一些學者對鋪作的演變進行了思考。陳明達認為外表看來成朵的鋪作,不過是縱架和橫架的結合點。亦即將縱架和橫架的結合部分割裂出來稱為鋪作。(陳明達,1981:106)張十慶認為“鋪作”一詞即透露有井幹結構的重疊而施的構成精神,指出其起源與井幹結構有關。(張十慶,1991:50) 結合對鋪作的研究與理解,有些學者進一步發展出“鋪作層”的概念。這一概念的使用可追溯至陳明達,他將法式殿堂架構分解為屋架層、鋪作分槽層和柱網層三個水平結構層。(陳明達,1981: 132)傅熹年在《五台山佛光寺建築》中,也將唐宋殿堂構架分解為柱網、鋪作層和屋頂草架三個水平構架層。(傅熹年,1998:236-237)(圖3)鋪作層這一概念逐漸為研究者接受和使用,潘谷西並對此進行了定義,認為鋪作層是一個由大量枋子、月梁等構件縱橫相交組成的龐大木構架,再輔以衆多的栱昂和替木等構件。鋪作層既是柱框層的強有力的穩定機制,又是屋蓋層的可靠托座。(潘谷西,2005:27-28)鍾曉青在討論鋪作起源時提出認為宋人所謂的“鋪作”,最初只是鋪作層位于柱頭之上的節點,後來逐漸添置于相鄰柱頭之間的枋額之上,其形式演變依附並受制于整個鋪作層的形成與發展。從這一意義上來說,鋪作層的出現標志中國古代木構建築發展成熟。(鍾曉青,2010:113,115)

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 李, YZFS, 4.8-9.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 ATTCAT 2018Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 FU, Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 349.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; MILLER, Divine Nature of PowerLink to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 4 MILLER, Divine Nature of PowerLink to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 5 GUO, A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture 中國建築英漢雙解辭典, 64.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; FU, Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 363.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: Bracketing

How to Cite This Entry

鋪作 pūzuò” in Architectura Sinica last modified June 11, 2020, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000013.

Bibliography:

鋪作 pūzuò.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published March 26, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000013.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 鋪作 pūzuò

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • Yuh-Fen Benda, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • BAI Ying 白穎, and CHEN Xintao 陳欣濤, entry contributors, “ 鋪作 pūzuò

Additional Credit:

  • Initial research and revision by BAI Ying 白穎, CHEN Xintao 陳欣濤
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2018
  • Editing and proofreading by Aurelia Campbell
  • Data entry and revision by Tracy Miller, Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Adding citations and revising title statement by SUN Zheng 孫正

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