擡梁 táiliáng

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000081

Terms

  • táiliáng (preferred) (Pinyin)
  • 擡梁 (Traditional Chinese)1
  • 擡樑(式) (Traditional Chinese)2
  • 抬梁 (Simplified Chinese)
  • t’ai-liang (Wade-Giles)
  • lifting beams (English)
  • column-and-beam frame (English)3
  • column-beam-and-strut (-style)(structure) (English)4

Note (brief)

    Tailiang is one of the two main systems of traditional Chinese timber-frame structures. The term was coined by architecture historians in the 1940s in contrast to chuandou. “Tailiang” can also be called “liangzhushi” (梁柱式), “jialiangshi” (架梁式), “dieliangshi” (叠梁式), zhuliangshi (柱梁式) and is a system in which beams and pillars are the main components. Literally, “tailiang” means fitting beams on top of the pillars, and fitting posts on top of the beams. Consequently, in this system there are fewer pillars with the building interior. To further distinguish it from chuandou, tailiang is interpreted as a framing system in which beams are supported on top of the pillars, and purlins are extended across the beams. It is usually considered to be the standard timber-frame structure of official buildings in northern China. (BAI Ying, 2018, ATTCAT Project).

    擡梁是中國傳統建築最主要的構架類型之一,這一名稱最早是在20世紀40年代由建築史學者命名,作為與穿鬥構架相對應的另一種結構類型。擡梁式木構架,又稱為梁柱式(梁思成)、架梁式(劉致平)、疊梁式、柱梁式等,其中梁是與柱同樣重要的結構構件。擡梁的字面意義是指柱上承梁,梁上重疊數層瓜柱和梁,中柱不落地而立于梁上的構架形式。為與穿鬥相區別,擡梁又被進一步解釋為以柱上架梁、梁上托檁的構件關係為特徵的構架體系,並常常被與北方官式建築的構架聯繫起來。 (白穎, 2018, ATTCAT Project)

Related concepts

    穿鬥 chuāndòu; liángzhùshì 梁柱式; jiàliángshì 架梁式; diéliángshi 叠梁式; zhùliángshì 柱梁式

Note (full)

    Tailiang 擡梁, also known as column-beam-and-strut, column-and-beam frame, column beam and strut system, is one of the most important architectural types. They are mainly used in official buildings, and examples in Yingzao fashi 营造法式 (1103) and Gongcheng zuofa zeli 工程做法则例 (1734) and the existing ancient official buildings are usually tailiang. In spite of this, the word “Tailiang” was coined by scholars. The earliest description was in Zhongguo jianzhushi (History of Chinese Architecture, 中国建筑史) edited by Liang Sicheng, 1954 edition. In this book, Liang Sicheng did not describe many details, but one of the most important he discussed was that “the beams can overlap multiple times.” Liu Zhiping introduced this formally as a type of timber frame structure in the 1957 edition of Zhongguo jianzhu leixing ji jiegou (The Type and Structure of Chinese Architecture 中国建筑类型及结构). In the above two studies, however, the term “tailiang” was not used. According to the author`s research, the first time this term was used should be in Liu Dunyu`s Ping luban yingzao zhengshi (Comment on Luban yingzao zhengshi 評《鲁班营造正式》) in February 1964. In this article, he wrote “... to change the chuandou structure into the tailiang structure, the pillars support the beams on which the melon-shaped columns (guazhu 瓜柱) stand, and then there is another beam supported by melon-shaped columns.” Although only a short sentence, the characteristics of tailiang were clearly summarized here. Subsequently, in Zhongguo gudai jianzhushi (The History of Ancient Chinese Architecture 中国古代建筑史) edited by Liu Dunzhen (1964), three types of structures -- jinggan 井干, tailiang, and ganlan干阑 -- were mentioned.

    The use of tailiang in the next edition of Zhongguo gudai jianzhushi (The History of Ancient Chinese Architecture 中国古代建筑史) edited by Liu Dunzhen (1980) was very influential in the academic study of Chinese architecture. This book provided specific information on the definition, characteristics, geographical location, historical development, and structural function, and the attached drawings became the chief source for the introduction of tailiang in other books. Meanwhile, Pan Guxi adopted this definition in the textbook Zhongguo Jianzhushi (History of Chinese Architecture 中国建筑史), and it became general knowledge in the architectural profession. In this type of academic study, the interpretation of the definition of tailiang mostly focuses on two aspects: the emphasis on the relationship among the components and the emphasis on distribution of force. The characteristics of these two definitions are now described as follows:

    Firstly, the relationship between columns and beams is very important. The pillars bear the weight of the beams, and the melon-shaped columns (guazhu 瓜柱) stand on the beams. Some definitions also mention the purlins, which are placed (perpendicular to the beams) across the melon-shaped columns

    Secondly, with respect to the distribution of force, the beam, as a bending member, must transmit the roof load to the pillars. Here, in contrast to the triangular truss commonly seen in Western architecture, the beams are mainly load-bearing, and their function of tying the pillars is not the most important.

    In the late twentieth century, much meticulous research on the tailiang structure has taken place, and there is now little doubt about the definition. In creating the tailiang system, Xu Boan(徐伯安, 2002, 8-36) believes that its development emerged from that of the triangular roof truss. In terms of the effect of force on particular components, Zhu Guangya (朱光亚 2002, 5-9) shows the beams to be bending members resting on the top of the pillars, with pillars often inserted into the bottom of the beams. Zhang Shiqing (張十慶 2007, 76-79)proposed two major modes of thinking about tectonic tendencies in traditional Chinese architecture: cengdie (層疊) and lianjia (連架). Cengdie is the technique of stacking in horizontal layers, and lianjia is related to joining together the vertical structural members. The practice of tailiang stems from not only cengdie but also lianjia.

    擡梁是中國傳統建築最主要的構架類型術語之一,最早在1940年代由建築史學者開始使用,作為描述與穿鬥構架相對應的另一種結構類型的名稱。但與穿鬥是在工匠術語基礎上總結而來不同,抬梁式是由建築史學者命名。不同學者對此種構架類型又曾使用過不同的名稱,如:梁柱式(梁思成)、架梁式(劉致平)、疊梁式、柱梁式等。

    最早談及類似構架的是1955年版的梁思成《中國建筑史》,但在此書中,梁思成並未對這種構架形式著墨太多,僅指出“梁可數層重疊”是它的一個最大的特點。在1957年版的劉致平《中國建筑類型及結構》中,首次正式把它作為一種木構架形式做出了介紹,稱之為架梁式屋架。但前述的兩份研究中,並未使用 “擡梁” 這一詞,筆者目前所能見到的資料,擡梁一詞最早出現在1950-1960年代的浙江民居研究中,用來描述中柱不落地的大廳中部結構。1964年劉敦楨主持編寫的《中國古代建築史》(第八稿)4中,提到井干式、擡梁式和干闌式這三種建筑構架類型。

    1980年劉敦楨主編的《中國古代建筑史》出版后,該書對擡梁架的定義、特點、採用地域、歷史發展、使用方式等方面作出較為詳細的概括,產生了廣泛的影響,所附的圖也成為之后其他著作中介紹擡梁架的藍本。同時,該定義也被寫入《中國建筑史》6的教材中,成為建筑專業內人人皆知的常識(中國建築史編寫組 1982, 152-153).

    擡梁的字面意義是指柱上承梁,梁上重疊數層瓜柱和梁,中柱不落地而立於梁上的構架形式。在定義的不斷闡釋中,為與穿斗相區別,擡梁被進一步解釋為以柱上架梁、梁上托檁的構件關系為特征的構架體系,並常常被與北方官式建筑的構架聯系起來。

    擡梁式構架被認為是代表了中國木結構最高成就的官式建築所廣泛使用的構架類型,因此對其起源的研究引起了學者的關注。如,徐伯安認為,擡梁式構架是在三角形屋架的基礎上發展而來(徐伯安 2002, 8-36)。張十慶則從建構思維的角度,提出我國傳統建築的兩大建構思維傾向:層疊和連架。層疊即橫向的分層疊加式建構,連架即豎向的分架連接式建構。而擡梁做法既有源於層疊結構的擡梁做法,又有源於連架結構的擡梁做法,可分別稱之為層疊式擡梁與連架式擡梁。(張十慶 2007, 76-79)

    (BAI Ying 白穎, 2018, ATTCAT Project)

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 刘, 中国建筑类型及结构, 78.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 刘, 中国古代建筑史, 4.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 FU, Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 367.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 GUO, A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture 中國建築英漢雙解辭典, 76.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 4 GUO, The structure of Chinese timber architecture, 291.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: Building Frame

How to Cite This Entry

擡梁 táiliáng” in Architectura Sinica last modified June 11, 2020, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000081.

Bibliography:

擡梁 táiliáng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 13, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000081.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 擡梁 táiliáng

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectural Terminology
  • BAI Ying 白穎 and SUN Yingzhe 孫迎喆, entry contributors, “ 擡梁 táiliáng

Additional Credit:

  • Initial research and review by BAI Ying 白穎, SUN Yingzhe 孫迎喆, ATTCAT 2018
  • Data entry and proof correction by Tracy Miller
  • Adding citations by Sun Zheng

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