梁 liáng

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000045

Terms

  • cross beams (preferred) (English)1
  • (Traditional Chinese)2
  • (Simplified Chinese)
  • liáng (Pinyin)
  • liang (Wade-Giles)
  • beams (English)3

Note (brief)

    (1) cross beam. One of main categories of structural elements in Chinese traditional architecture; interchangeable with fu 栿. The essential features of a cross beam described in the Yingzao fashi (1103, 5.1a) and the Gongcheng zuofa (1734) include: placed above the pillars, at least one end is supported by a pillar directly or by a bracket on top of a pillar, the other end could be inserted into the body of the a pillar or could be placed above another beam. Extant historic buildings it is also possible to find those where both ends are placed above another beam. With the exception of the T-beam, a cross beam is usually located perpendicular to purlins. In the Yingzao fashi, beams are usually described with the character “fu,” and a beam between pillars is named after the number of rafters it spans, such as a 6-rafter-beam, or 8-rafter-beam. But there are exceptions, including the pinpricking connector(zhaqian 剳牽), infant beam(rufu 乳栿), eaves cross beam(yanfu 檐栿), level cross beam(pingliang 平梁), and T beam(dingfu 丁栿). Modern architectural historians use this terminology to describe architecture dating from the Tang dynasty (618-907) to early Ming dynasty (1368-1644). In Qing dynasty texts such as the Gongcheng zuofa, a cross beam is usually named after the number of purlins it spans, such a 5-purlin-beam, or 7-purlin-beam, etc. (2) A bridge spanning water.

    (1) 作為建築構件,梁是中國傳統建築中的主要長材之一種,也可稱為栿。但元以後,用栿字者較為少見。清工部《工程做法》中統一稱為“梁”。根據北宋《營造法式》(1103年)與清工部《工程做法》(1734年),梁的基本特徵包括:不用於面闊方向;梁的兩個支點中,至少有一端位置在柱以上;其支點直接或經由斗栱被柱支撐。其中一端或可插入柱,或也可能架於另一梁栿上。在實例中,也有可能兩個支點都架在其它梁或額上。北宋《營造法式》術語體系裡多用“栿”字。殿堂構架的梁通常以其跨度的椽架數命名:如六椽栿、八椽栿等。不符合這一命名規則的梁則有劄牽、乳栿、檐栿、平梁、丁栿等。(2)梁也指跨越水面的橋。

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 ATTCAT 2018Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 荀, 前漢紀(無錫孫氏小綠天藏明翻宋本), 398.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陈, 《营造法式》辞解, 315.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 王, 中国古建筑术语辞典, 371.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 GUO, A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture 中國建築英漢雙解辭典, 53.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: Building Frame

How to Cite This Entry

liáng” in Architectura Sinica last modified March 25, 2020, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000045.

Bibliography:

liáng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 20, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000045.

About this Entry

Entry Title: liáng

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • Yuh-Fen Benda, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and CHEN Luxi 陳麓西, entry contributors, “ liáng

Additional Credit:

  • Initial research and revision by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, CHEN Luxi 陳麓西
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2018
  • Data entry, proofreading and revision by Tracy Miller
  • Adding citations Melanie Lu
  • Revising title statement by SUN Zheng 孫正

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