(1) Cross beam. One of the main categories of structural elements in Chinese traditional architecture; interchangeable with fu 栿. According to the Yingzao fashi (1103), Chapter 5, 1a and the Gongcheng zuofa (1734), cross beams are placed above the pillars and at least one end is supported directly by a pillar or by a bracket on top of a pillar, while the other end could be inserted into the body of the a pillar or placed above another beam. In extant historic buildings it is also possible to find cross beams whose ends are placed above another beam. With the exception of the T-beam, a cross beam is usually located perpendicular to purlins. In the Yingzao fashi, beams are usually described with the character fu 栿, and a beam between pillars is named after the number of rafters it spans, such as a 6-rafter-beam, or 8-rafter-beam. But there are exceptions, including the zhaqian 剳牽 (lit. pin-pricking connector), rufu 乳栿 (lit. infant beam), yanfu 檐栿 (lit. eaves cross beam), pingliang 平梁 (lit. level cross beam), and 丁栿 dingfu (T-beam). Modern architectural historians use this terminology to describe architecture dating from the Tang to the early Ming dynasties. In Qing dynasty texts such as the Gongcheng zuofa, a cross beam is usually named after the number of purlins it spans, e.g. a 5-purlin beam, or a 7-purlin beam.
(2) A bridge spanning water.
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- 1 2018. ATTCAT 2018
- 2 荀. 1368-1644. 前漢紀（無錫孫氏小綠天藏明翻宋本）, 398.; 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 315.; 王. 2007. 中国古建筑术语辞典, 371.
- 3 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 53.
Broad Match: building frame
How to Cite This Entry
Bibliography:ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 et al., “ 梁 liáng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 20, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000045.
About this Entry
Entry Title: 梁 liáng
Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:
- Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and CHEN Luxi 陳麓西, entry contributors, “ 梁 liáng”
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- Initial research and revision by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, CHEN Luxi 陳麓西
- Peer review by ATTCAT 2018
- Data entry by Tracy Miller
- English proofreading by Aurelia Campbell
- Chinese proofreading by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净
- Adding citations Melanie Lu
- Revising title statement by SUN Zheng 孫正
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