One of the main categories of structural elements in Chinese traditional architecture; interchangeable with liang 梁. The essential features of a cross beam described in the Yingzao fashi (1103, 5.1a) and the Gongcheng zuofa (1734) include: placed above the pillars, at least one end is supported by a pillar directly or by a bracket on top of a pillar, the other end could be inserted into the body of the a pillar or could be placed above another beam. Extant historic buildings it is also possible to find those where both ends are placed above another beam. With the exception of the T-beam 丁栿, a cross beam is usually located perpendicular to purlins. In the Yingzao fashi, beams are usually described with the character “fu 栿,” and a beam between pillars is named after the number of rafters it spans, such as a 6-rafter-beam, or 8-rafter-beam. But there are exceptions, including the pinpricking connector（zhaqian 剳牽), infant beam（rufu 乳栿), eaves cross beam（yanfu 檐栿), level cross beam（pingliang 平梁), and T-beam. Modern architectural historians use this terminology to describe architecture dating from the Tang dynasty (618-907) to early Ming dynasty (1368-1644). In Qing dynasty texts such as the Gongcheng zuofa, a cross beam is usually named after the number of purlins it spans, such a 5-purlin-beam, or 7-purlin-beam, etc.
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- 1 魏, 魏書
- 2 魏, 魏書, 2771.; 陈, 《营造法式》辞解, 275.
- 3 LIANG, Chinese architecture, 10.; GUO, A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture 中國建築英漢雙解辭典, 63.
Broad Match: Building Frame
How to Cite This Entry
Bibliography:“ 栿 fú.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 20, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000028.
About this Entry
Entry Title: 栿 fú
Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:
- Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
- Yuh-Fen Benda, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, and CHEN Luxi 陳麓西, entry contributors, “ 栿 fú”
- Initial research and revision by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, CHEN Luxi 陳麓西
- Peer review by ATTCAT 2018
- Data entry, proofreading and revision by Tracy Miller
- Adding citations Melanie Lu
- Revising title statement by SUN Zheng 孫正
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