• fu (Pinyin without tones)
  • (Traditional Chinese)2
  • (Simplified Chinese)
  • (Pinyin)
  • fu (Wade-Giles)
  • cross beams (lit.) (English)
  • cross beams (ATTCAT preferred) (English)1
  • beams (English)3


    One of the main categories of structural elements in Chinese traditional architecture; interchangeable with liang 梁. The essential features of a cross-beam are described in Yingzao fashi (1103) and Gongcheng zuofa (1734) as such: (1) the cross-beam is placed above the pillars; (2) at least one end is supported by a pillar directly or by a bracket (gong) on top of a pillar; (3) the other end can either be inserted into the body of a pillar or placed above another beam. Within extant historic buildings it is also possible to find cross-beams in which both ends are placed above another beam. With the exception of the T-beam 丁栿, a cross beam is usually located perpendicular to purlins. In Yingzao fashi, beams are usually described with the character “fu 栿,” and a beam between pillars is named after the number of rafters it spans, such as a 6-rafter-beam, or 8-rafter-beam; however, there are exceptions, including the pinpricking connector (zhaqian 剳牽), infant beam (rufu 乳栿), eaves cross beam (yanfu 檐栿), level cross beam (pingliang 平梁), and T-beam. Modern architectural historians use this term to describe architecture dating from the Tang (618-907) to early Ming (1368-1644). In Qing dynasty texts such as the Gongcheng zuofa, a cross beam is usually named after the number of purlins it spans, such a 5-purlin-beam or 7-purlin-beam.

    作為建築構件,栿是中國傳統建築中的主要長材之一種,也可稱為。根據北宋《營造法式》 (1103年)與工部《工程做法》 (1734年),梁栿的基本特徵包括:(1)位於柱上。(2)梁栿的兩個支點中,至少有一端位置在柱以上;其支點直接或經由斗栱被柱支撐。(3)其另一端或可插入柱,或也可能架於另一梁栿上。在實例中,也有可能兩個支點都架在其它或額上。除丁栿為特例外,梁栿一般不用於面闊方向。 北宋《營造法式》術語體系裡多用“栿”字。殿堂構架的通常以其跨度的椽架數命名:如六椽栿、八椽栿等。不符合這一命名規則的則有剳牽乳栿、檐栿、平梁丁栿等。以後,用栿字者較為少見。工部《工程做法》中統一稱為“”。

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Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the editorial guidelines.

  • 1 魏. 1974. 魏書Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 魏. 1974. 魏書, 2771.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 275.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 LIANG. 2005. Chinese architecture: a pictorial history, 10.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 63.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: building frame

How to Cite This Entry

ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, et al., “ ” in Architectura Sinica last modified September 5, 2020,


ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, et al., “ .” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 20, 2019.

About this Entry

Entry Title:

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, and CHEN Luxi 陳麓西, entry contributors, “

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Initial research and revision by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, CHEN Luxi 陳麓西
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2018
  • Data entry, proofreading and revision by Tracy Miller
  • English proofreading and revision by Aurelia Campbell
  • Chinese proofreading by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净
  • Adding citations Melanie Lu
  • Revising title statement by SUN Zheng 孫正

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