dingfu (T-beam)

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000017

Terms

  • T-beam (English)1
  • dīngfú (Pinyin)2
  • 丁栿 (Traditional Chinese)3
  • 丁栿 (Simplified Chinese)
  • ting-fu (Wade-Giles)

Note

In traditional Chinese timber-frame architecture, the dingfu refers to cross beams used on the gable sides of the building with gable and hip roof (xieshan) or with hip roof (wudian). T-beams are parallel to the roof ridge and form a T shape with cross beams perpendicular to roof ridge. The term appears in the Yingzao Fashi only (Palace Museum ed., e.g. 5.7b) . Modern architectural historians use this term to describe cross beams on the gable sides of buildings dating from the Tang (618-907) to early Ming (1368-1644) dynasties.

丁栿指四阿(即廡殿)或廈兩頭(即歇山)房屋山面承屋蓋用的梁,與進深方向的梁在平面上成“丁”字形。丁栿僅見於宋《營造法式》故宫藏抄本 5.7b。現代學者將之用於對唐至明初建築物的描述。

Sources and Contributors:

T beam: (1)Guo, Qinghua. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture 中國建築英漢雙解辭典. Mulgrave, Vic., Australia: Images Pub., 2002:32

丁栿: (2)(宋)李誡編修, 故宫博物院编. 營造法式(故宫藏抄本).北京:紫禁城出版社,2009 (3)(宋)李诫编修, 梁思成注释. 《营造法式》注释. 北京: 中国建筑工业出版社, 1983:152 (4) 陈明达. 《营造法式》辞解. 天津: 天津大学出版社, 2010:13

dingfu: (5) Fu, Xinian, Alexandra Harrer, and Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt. Traditional Chinese Architecture : Twelve Essays. The Princeton-China Series. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, 353. (6) Guo, Qinghua. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture 中國建築英漢雙解辭典. Mulgrave, Vic., Australia: Images Pub., 2002:32

Annotation

丁栿指四阿(即廡殿)或廈兩頭(即歇山)房屋山面的梁,與進深方向的梁在平面上成“丁”字形。丁栿僅見於宋《營造法式》(初刊於崇寧二年,1103年)。現代學者將之用於對唐至明初建築物的描述。 梁思成在《營造法式註釋》中認為“丁栿梁首由外檐鋪作承托,梁尾搭在檐栿上,與檐栿(在平面上)構成“丁”字形。”(梁思成,1983:152)陳明達的定義與之相似:“四阿或廈兩頭房屋,承山面屋蓋所用大梁,與橫向屋架上的大梁成丁字相疊壘,故名‘丁栿’”。但陳明達的解釋未強調梁首由外檐鋪作承托(陳明達,2010:13)。同樣有學者認為“丁栿應不僅限於山面檐步,凡用於山面的與正身梁栿丁字相交的縱向梁栿都可謂之丁栿。”(賈洪波,2010:93)江南地區宋元時期井字形構架的建築,山面梁栿和順身梁栿一樣尾部插入中心柱中,在這方面有重要研究的一些學者仍以乳栿稱之。(圖)(張十慶,2015)但也有發明“丁乳栿”一詞稱呼該類構件的個例。(張亞宣,2017)

(ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and CHEN Luxi 陳麓西, ATTCAT 2018)

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 GUO, A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture 中國建築英漢雙解辭典, 32.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 李, YZFSLink to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 李, YZFS 注释, 152.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陈, 《营造法式》辞解, 13.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 FU, Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 353.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; GUO, A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture 中國建築英漢雙解辭典, 32.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: Building Frame

External relationships (1)

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dingfu (T-beam)” in Architectura Sinica last modified May 20, 2019, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000017.

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dingfu (T-beam).” In Architectura Sinica, edited by . Entry published May 20, 2019. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000017.

About this Entry

Entry Title: dingfu (T-beam)

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, general editor,
  • , editor, Architectura Sinica
  • Yuh-Fen Benda, entry contributor, “dingfu (T-beam)

Additional Credit:

  • Initial Research ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and CHEN Luxi 陳麓西 ATTCAT 2018
  • data entry and proof correction Tracy Miller
  • adding citations SUN Zheng

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