- rufu (Pinyin without tones)
- 乳栿 (Traditional Chinese)
- 乳栿 (Simplified Chinese)
- rǔfú (Pinyin)1
- ju-fu (Wade-Giles)
- mammary, newborn; beam (lit.) (English)2
- infant beam (ATTCAT preferred translation) (English)3
- a kind of two-rafter beam (English)4
- eavesbeam (English)5
- tie beam (English)6
- 2-rafter beam (English)7
- two-rafter-long beam (English)8
Rufu 乳栿, literally "infant beam" or "nursling beam" (Hanyu dacidian; Kroll 2015, 391), refers to cross beams that span two rafters, usually with one end located above the eaves puzuo 鋪作 and the other end inserted into an interior pillar. Liang Sicheng suggests that a rufu might also have both ends layered at the top of the puzuo (Liang 1983, 142; Chen 2008). Chen Mingda notes that a rufu should be located on the lowest level of the roof frame (Chen 2010, 196).9
The term rufu is mainly used in the Yingzao fashi. From the Chinese word meaning infant, ru 乳 likely refers to its short length, while fu 栿 indicates that it is a cross beam (also called liang 梁; Hanyu dacidian). According to two illustrations in the Yingzao fashi (YZFS 31.10a-11b), it appears that a rufu could also be located between two inner pillars.10
Outside of the Yingzao fashi, the only other known occurrence of rufu is in the Jinbian 禁扁, a text published in the Yuan dynasty, but the term ruliang 乳梁 can be found in Tang dynasty texts. Ruliang was understood as a short beam in the Ming and Qing dynasty (Tian 1985, 603; Chen 1989, 190). Because the terms liang and fu are interchangeable, rufu and ruliang should have the same meaning.11
《營造法式》外目前僅知元《禁扁》有：“乳栿，貳栿也。”《唐會要》等書所輯唐《營繕令》有“乳梁”一詞，明《留青日札》釋其為“壓槽枋上短梁”(田 1985，603) 清《格致鏡原》也基本沿用這一說法，指乳梁為“枋上短梁”(陈 1989，190)。而這句話應該是出自《營造法式》卷五：“凡屋内若施平棊。平闇亦同。在大梁之上。平棊之上。又施草栿。乳栿之上亦施草乳栿。並在壓槽方之上。”很可能田藝蘅已不理解《營造法式》中乳栿和草乳栿的關係，但從《留青日札》到《格致鏡原》也可看出保留了乳梁為短小之梁的意思。11
Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.
- 1 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 196.
- 2 KROLL. 2015. A Student's Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese, 391.; 漢語大詞典編纂処. 2011. 漢語大詞典
- 3 2018. ATTCAT 2018
- 4 FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 364.
- 5 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 67.
- 6 MILLER. 2008. The Eleventh-century Daxiongbaodian of Kaihuasi and Architectural Style in Southern Shanxi's Shangdang Region, 1-42.
- 7 STEINHARDT. 1991. The Mizong Hall of Qinglong Si: Space, Ritual, and Classicism in Tang Architecture, 27-50.
- 8 LAI. 2014. Idealizing a Chinese Style, 61-90.
- 9 梁. 1983. 《營造法式》註釋卷上, 142.; 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 196.
- 10 漢語大詞典編纂処. 2011. 漢語大詞典; 李. 2009. 營造法式(故宫藏抄本), 31.10a-11b.
- 11 田. 1985. 留青日札, 603.; 陳. 1989. 格致鏡原, 190.
Broad Match: building frame
How to Cite This Entry
Bibliography:ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 et al., “ 乳栿 rǔfú.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published March 12, 2021. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000140.
About this Entry
Entry Title: 乳栿 rǔfú
Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:
- Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and WANG Yuanyuan 王媛媛, entry contributors, “ 乳栿 rǔfú”
- Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
- Preliminary research CMW 2021
- Peer review by ATTCAT 2021
- English proofreading by Aurelia Campbell Tracy Miller
- Chinese proofreading by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 ZUO Lala 左拉拉
- Data entry and adding citation(s) by CHEN Baolong 陈宝龙
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