rǔfú 乳栿



  • rufu (Pinyin without tones)
  • 乳栿 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 乳栿 (Simplified Chinese)
  • rǔfú (Pinyin)1
  • ju-fu (Wade-Giles)
  • mammary, newborn; beam (lit.) (English)2
  • infant beam (ATTCAT preferred translation) (English)3
  • a kind of two-rafter beam (English)4
  • eavesbeam (English)5
  • tie beam (English)6
  • 2-rafter beam (English)7
  • two-rafter-long beam (English)8

Note (full)

    Rufu 乳栿, literally "infant beam" or "nursling beam" (Hanyu dacidian; Kroll 2015, 391), refers to cross beams that span two rafters, usually with one end located above the eaves puzuo 鋪作 and the other end inserted into an interior pillar. Liang Sicheng suggests that a rufu might also have both ends layered at the top of the puzuo (Liang 1983, 142; Chen 2008). Chen Mingda notes that a rufu should be located on the lowest level of the roof frame (Chen 2010, 196).9

    The term rufu is mainly used in the Yingzao fashi. From the Chinese word meaning infant, ru 乳 likely refers to its short length, while fu 栿 indicates that it is a cross beam (also called liang 梁; Hanyu dacidian). According to two illustrations in the Yingzao fashi (YZFS 31.10a-11b), it appears that a rufu could also be located between two inner pillars.10

    Outside of the Yingzao fashi, the only other known occurrence of rufu is in the Jinbian 禁扁, a text published in the Yuan dynasty, but the term ruliang 乳梁 can be found in Tang dynasty texts. Ruliang was understood as a short beam in the Ming and Qing dynasty (Tian 1985, 603; Chen 1989, 190). Because the terms liang and fu are interchangeable, rufu and ruliang should have the same meaning.11

    一般認為乳栿是長兩,一端在外簷斗栱上,另一端插入內柱;或兩端均架於斗栱(梁1983,142);陳明達還強調乳栿是屋架中位置最下長兩(陳 2010,196)。9

    “乳栿”一詞主要見於《營造法式》(1103)。乳,有幼小之意;,即為(漢語大詞典)。在《營造法式》圖樣“十架椽屋前後並乳栿用六柱”和“十架椽屋前後各劄牽乳栿用六柱”裏(YZFS 31.10a-11b),兩内柱之間長兩似也被稱爲乳栿。10

    營造法式》外目前僅知禁扁》有:“乳栿,貳栿也。”《唐會要》等書所輯《營繕令》有“乳梁”一詞,留青日札》釋其為“壓槽枋上短梁”(田 1985,603) 格致鏡原》也基本沿用這一說法,指乳梁為“枋上短梁”(陈 1989,190)。而這句話應該是出自《營造法式》卷五:“凡屋内若施平棊。平闇亦同。在大梁之上。平棊之上。又施草栿。乳栿之上亦施草乳栿。並在壓槽方之上。”很可能田藝蘅已不理解《營造法式》中乳栿和草乳栿的關係,但從《留青日札》到《格致鏡原》也可看出保留了乳梁為短小之的意思。11

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 196.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 KROLL. 2015. A Student's Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese, 391.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 漢語大詞典編纂処. 2011. 漢語大詞典Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 2018. ATTCAT 2018Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 4 FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 364.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 5 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 67.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 6 MILLER. 2008. The Eleventh-century Daxiongbaodian of Kaihuasi and Architectural Style in Southern Shanxi's Shangdang Region, 1-42.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 7 STEINHARDT. 1991. The Mizong Hall of Qinglong Si: Space, Ritual, and Classicism in Tang Architecture, 27-50.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 8 LAI. 2014. Idealizing a Chinese Style, 61-90.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 9 梁. 1983. 《營造法式》註釋卷上, 142.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 196.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 10 漢語大詞典編纂処. 2011. 漢語大詞典Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 李. 2009. 營造法式 (1103; 故宫藏抄本), 31.10a-11b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 11 田. 1985. 留青日札, 603.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 1989. 格致鏡原, 190.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: building frame

How to Cite This Entry

ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 et al., “ 乳栿 rǔfú” in Architectura Sinica last modified November 11, 2021, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000140.


ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 et al., “ 乳栿 rǔfú.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published March 12, 2021. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000140.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 乳栿 rǔfú

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and WANG Yuanyuan 王媛媛, entry contributors, “ 乳栿 rǔfú

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Preliminary research CMW 2021
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2021
  • English proofreading by Aurelia Campbell Tracy Miller
  • Chinese proofreading by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 ZUO Lala 左拉拉
  • Data entry and adding citation(s) by CHEN Baolong 陈宝龙

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