chūjì 出際


  • chuji (Pinyin without tones)1
  • 出際 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 出际 (Simplified Chinese)
  • chūjì (Pinyin)1
  • ch'u-chi (Wade-Giles)
  • verge (English)2


    Chuji 出際 is the name of a roofing structure used in both shaliangtou (hip-gable) and bushaliangtou (overhanging gable) roofs in which the purlins extend beyond the wall plane so that the roof overhangs at the two gable ends. Meaning, literally, "protruding beyond the limit" (of a gable wall), chuji can also refer to the part of the roof overhanging beyond the gables, and in that use it is synonymous with the term wufei 屋廢 (lit. “roof end”) (Chen 2010, 126; Pan and He 2005, 61). The term chuji is only found in the Yingzao fashi. In the Qing dynasty, the distance at which the roof protruded from the gable walls was usually determined by the length of the entire purlin rather than only the part extending beyond the gable wall surface. Perhaps as a consequence, the term chuji was no longer commonly used. 3

    Among surviving wooden buildings in China, the earliest example of chuji used in a building with a shaliangtou roof is the main hall of Nanchan Temple 南禪寺 on Mount Wutai, Shanxi province (782). The earliest example known of chuji in a bu shaliangtou roof is in the West Side Hall of Longmen Monastery 龍門寺西配殿, in Pingshun, Shanxi province (925).

    “出際”是廈兩頭不廈兩頭造屋頂構造名稱,其做法是將槫的兩端伸出,使屋蓋懸挑於兩山面之外。“出際”也可以指屋頂挑出山面之外的部分,又稱“屋廢”。目前學者一般認為,“出際”是屋頂挑出部位的名稱(陳 2010, 126; 潘和何 2005, 61),即與“屋廢”同物異名。“出際”一詞在目前所知的古代文獻中僅見于宋《營造法式》清代對於屋頂挑出山牆的做法,大多直接基於桁條伸出山墙的长度加以規定,“出際”一詞已不常用。3

    中國現存的木構建築遺例中,廈兩頭造屋頂出際做法的最早實例見於山西省五臺山南禪寺大殿(782 年);不廈兩頭造屋頂出際做法的最早實例見於山西省平順龍門寺西配殿(925 年)。

Related concepts


    屋廢 wūfèi

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the editorial guidelines.

  • 1 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 126.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 26.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 126.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 潘. 2005. 《营造法式》解读, 61.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 26.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: building frame

How to Cite This Entry

JIA Tingli 贾亭立 et al., “ 出際 chūjì” in Architectura Sinica last modified May 31, 2023,


JIA Tingli 贾亭立 et al., “ 出際 chūjì.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 30, 2022.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 出際 chūjì

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • JIA Tingli 贾亭立 and DOU Keqin 窦可亲, entry contributors, “ 出際 chūjì

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Initial research and revision by DOU Keqin 窦可亲 CMW M22
  • Data entry by CHEN Zhuo 陈卓
  • Entry of revised data and links by LI Zhixian 李知賢

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