huáfèi 華廢


  • huafei (Pinyin without tones)1
  • 華廢 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 华废 (Simplified Chinese)
  • huáfèi (Pinyin)1
  • hua-fei (Wade-Giles)
  • gable-eaves (English)2


    Meaning “ornate” (or “blossoming”) “end,” huafei 華廢 refers to the covering of the verges, the part of the roof beyond the vertical ridges of a gable end, with roof tiles, whereby the capping tiles (huatou tongwa 華頭㼧瓦 and chongchun banwa 重唇瓪瓦) are aligned to be perpendicular to the vertical ridges (see figure). The term is found in texts as late as the Song dynasty (Li 2009, 13.2a; 13.4b) and is written huafei 化廢 (lit. “transforming the end”) in some literature (Guo 1368, 1.8b). Modern scholars are generally of the opinion that the tiles aligned perpendicular to the vertical ridges outside the two gables should be called huafei 華廢 (Liang 1983, 256; Chen 2010, 298). 3

    From an archaeological perspective, by the Han dynasty we can already find examples of the finishing of gable-end verges in a manner similar to "huafei."

    By the Qing dynasty, the term "huafei" is no longer seen in textual sources. In the Gongcheng zuofa the similar treatment of the gable end verges is called “paishan goudi 排山勾滴” ([Qing] Gongbu 1734, 43.8b; 46.5b; Liang 1983, 37).4

    指屋頂兩山垂脊之外的部分且採用垂直於屋脊排列華頭㼧瓦和重唇瓪瓦的做法。該詞在古籍中至遲見於宋代文獻(李 2009,13.2a;13.4b),有的文獻中寫作“化廢”(郭 1368,1.8b)。現代學者也普遍認為兩山垂脊之外垂直於垂脊排列瓦隴都可稱為“華廢”(梁 1983,256;陈 2010, 298)。 3


    清代“華廢”一詞已不見使用,在《工程做法》中,屋頂兩山垂脊之外的類似做法被稱為“排山勾滴”([清]工部 1734,43.8b;46.5b; 梁 1983,37)。 4

Related concepts

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the editorial guidelines.

  • 2 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 42.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 李. 2009. 營造法式 (1103; 故宫藏抄本), 13.2a; 13.4b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 郭. 1368-1644. 圖畫見聞志, 1.8b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 梁. 1983. 《營造法式》註釋卷上, 256.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 298.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 4 清工部. 1734. 工程做法則例, 43.8b; 46.5b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 梁. 1983. 《營造法式》註釋卷上, 37.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: roofing tiles

How to Cite This Entry

JIA Tingli 贾亭立 et al., “ 華廢 huáfèi” in Architectura Sinica last modified May 31, 2023,


JIA Tingli 贾亭立 et al., “ 華廢 huáfèi.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 30, 2022.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 華廢 huáfèi

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • JIA Tingli 贾亭立 and DOU Keqin 窦可亲, entry contributors, “ 華廢 huáfèi

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Initial research and revision by DOU Keqin 窦可亲 CMW M22
  • Data entry by CHEN Zhuo 陈卓
  • Entry of revised data and links by LI Zhixian 李知賢

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