píngzuò 平坐

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000211

Terms

  • pingzuo (Pinyin without tones)1
  • 平坐 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 平坐 (Simplified Chinese)
  • píngzuò (Pinyin)2
  • p'ing-tso (Wade-Giles)
  • substructure (English)3
  • timber substructure (English)4
  • subsidiary mezzanine level (English)4
  • exterior balcony (English)4
  • exterior platform (English)5
  • balcony (English)6

Note

    The term pingzuo 平坐 (also written pingzuo 平座; lit. “level” “seat” Kroll 2015 346, 636) has a variety of meanings in classical Chinese literature beyond the scope of architecture, including a sitting posture (Li 1995,36), a certain kind of sitting apparatus (Xu and An 2004, 2444; Zhou 2000, 12515), and a base (Gu 1984,12.186). In the Ming and Qing dynasties (14th-20th centuries), pingzuo was also used to refer to a seat or throne (Zhang 1981,58). All these meanings emphasize that pingzuo is a structure designed to provide a level base for whatever is on top of it. 7

    The term pingzuo 平坐 appears around the Three Kingdoms period (220-280 CE) and was used through the Tang dynasty (618-907) (Bi 1996,620). After the Tang dynasty, both characters 坐 and 座 were used in pingzuo, and appear to be interchangeable. In the Song dynasty Yingzao fashi (1103) it is written "平坐" (pingzuo). The use of pingzuo in the Yingzao fashi as part of a timber frame structure has long attracted the attention of architectural historians.The basic characteristic of the pingzuo as described in Yingzao fashi is a platform supported by bracket sets on top of pillars, providing a level foundation for the building above it. The pillars supporting the pingzuo can be erected on top of a lower story, directly into the ground, in the water, or on top of city walls. In the Yingzao fashi pingzuo is also glossed as gedao 閣道, dengdao 墱道, feibi 飛陛, and guzuo 鼓坐 (Li 2009, 4.10b). However, no consensus on the relationship between pingzuo and these four terms has been reached in modern scholarship. (Chen 1990,50;Feng 2008;Yu and Hui 2021;Li 2020) Some scholars suggest that pingzuo refers to a balcony surrounding the building, rather than a full foundation for the structural frame above it (Liang 2001,116;Ma 2007;Zheng 2007;Li 2020). However, this does not reflect the meaning of pingzuo as described in the Yingzao fashi. 8

    The form of pingzuo took shape in the Han dynasty at the latest. The earliest extant building with pingzuo is the Guanyin Pavilion at Dule monastery, Ji County, Hebei province, dated to 984. After the Qing dynasty, it was common to use the term pingtai 平臺, to refer to pingzuo (Wang 1995, 117). Some scholars believe that, alongside the decline in using bracket-sets within pingzuo and the subsequent popularity of constructing multi-storied buildings with single pillars extending between multiple floors, in timber-frame buildings after the Song dynasty, pingzuo became less associated with bracket-sets and more understood as a simple platform. 9

    平坐,指承托上部之水平基座,並非僅限於建築術語。建築史學家關注的“平坐”出自《營造法式》(1103),主要用於木結構建築中。平坐一詞在中國古代文獻中具有多種含義,可指代一種坐姿(李 1995,36)、某種坐具或底座(許和安 2004,2444;周 2000,12515)、承托上層屋身的建築基座(顾 1984,12.186);明清時期 (1368-1911)也用平坐指代座位或座席(張 1981,58)。除坐姿外,這些涵義均強調其為承托上部之水平基座。7

    “平坐”亦見寫作“平座”,二者指代物件相同。前者出現更早,至遲見於三國時期文献(毕 1996,620),三國至唐代多寫作“平坐”。唐以後文獻“平坐”與“平座”均見使用,應是文字本身的發展和使用中出現的混用。宋《營造法式》均寫作“平坐”。本注釋使用“平坐”。10

    由鋪作架起、承托上屋是《營造法式》所描述的平坐的基本特徵。支承平坐的柱根可架於下部屋身之上,或立於地面(如《水殿招涼圖》)、水中(如《金明池圖》)、城牆(如宋《清明上河圖》中的城門)等處。平坐的形象至遲在漢代已初具雛形。現存建築中,最早的平坐實例見於遼代獨樂寺觀音閣。

    清代以後通常用平臺指代平坐(王璞子 1995,117)。《營造法式》也提及平坐又名閣道、墱道、飛陛、鼓坐(李 2009 4.10b),但平坐與此四者的關係仍是學者討論的話題之一,並未形成共識(陈 1990,50;冯 2008;喻和惠 2021;李 2020)。也有一種觀點認為平坐是樓閣建築外部的挑臺或陽臺(梁 2001,116;马 2007;郑 2007;李 2020),但這並不能反映古代文獻中“平坐”的基本涵義。11

Related concepts

    臺 tái

    平坐層 píngzuòcéng

    閣道 gédào

    墱道 dēngdào

    飛陛 fēibì

    鼓坐 gǔzuò

    平臺 píngtái

Related sites

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 63.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 363.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 114.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 63.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 4 FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 363.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 5 FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 22.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 6 LIANG. 2005. Chinese architecture: a pictorial historyLink to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 7 李. 1995. 太平廣記, 36.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 許. 2004. 二十四史全集, 2444.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 周. 2000. 全唐文新編, 12515.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 顧. 1984. 歷代宅京記, 12.186.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 張. 1981.01. 航海述奇, 58.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 8 畢. 1996. 中州金石記, 620.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 李. 2009. 營造法式(故宫藏抄本), 4.10b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 1990. 中国古代木结构建筑技术 : 战国~北宋, 50.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 冯. 2008. 北宋熙春阁与元上都大安阁形制考, 292-302.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 喻. 2021. 基于《营造法式》“缠柱造”做法复原的“楼—阁”概念辨析, 95-102.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 李. 2020. 神衹之居——中国建筑、文献与图像中的平坐(阳台), 24-29, 137.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 梁. 2001. 梁思成全集 第七卷, 116.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 马. 2007. 中国古代木楼阁Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 9 王. 1995. 工程做法注释, 117.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 10 畢. 1996. 中州金石記, 620.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 11 王. 1995. 工程做法注释, 117.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 李. 2009. 營造法式(故宫藏抄本), 4.10b.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 1990. 中国古代木结构建筑技术 : 战国~北宋, 50.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 冯. 2008. 北宋熙春阁与元上都大安阁形制考, 292-302.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 喻. 2021. 基于《营造法式》“缠柱造”做法复原的“楼—阁”概念辨析, 95-102.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 李. 2020. 神衹之居——中国建筑、文献与图像中的平坐(阳台), 24-29, 137.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 梁. 2001. 梁思成全集 第七卷, 116.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 马. 2007. 中国古代木楼阁Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: foundations

How to Cite This Entry

SUN Xiaoqian 孙晓倩 et al., “ 平坐 píngzuò” in Architectura Sinica last modified May 31, 2023, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000211.

Bibliography:

SUN Xiaoqian 孙晓倩 et al., “ 平坐 píngzuò.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 30, 2022. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000211.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 平坐 píngzuò

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • SUN Xiaoqian 孙晓倩 and WU Xiaoxuan 吴晓璇, entry contributors, “ 平坐 píngzuò

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Initial research and revision by WU Xiaoxuan 吴晓璇 CMW M22
  • Data entry by CHEN Zhuo 陈卓
  • Entry of revised data and links by LI Zhixian 李知賢

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