tíng

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000063

Terms

  • ting (Pinyin without tones)
  • (Traditional Chinese)
  • (Simplified Chinese)
  • tíng (Pinyin)1
  • t`ing (Wade-Giles)
  • pavilion (English)2

Note (full)

    From the pre-Qin to the Ming and Qing dynasties, the form, structure, and function of ting have undergone significant changes. During the Eastern Zhou, ting referred to a three-zhang (roughly 30 ft) high military fort. In the Eastern Han, it functioned as a station house (yizhan 驛站). It could also be a government compound serving both military and registration purposes. In literature relating to the southern part of China in the Six Dynasties period, ting were built in high places and were often recognized as landmarks or gathering spots for literati and aristocrats. During the Tang dynasty, ting were built in fortified palaces (gongcheng 宮城 or "palace-cities"), were used as residences, and were enclosed by walls. They did not have to be high buildings or placed in elevated areas. After the Song dynasty, ting were often found in gardens and used for leisurely activities. In the Yingzao fashi, the ting is considered a non-essential structural form and tingxie, referring to this structural form in conjunction with its platform beneath, is the architectural type coined in the Yingzao fashi. Its form and location became even more flexible in Ming private gardens, though it was mainly a simple and open freestanding structure. Regardless of its transformation through time, the ting’s close connection to the appreciation of natural beauty persisted from the Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties period through the Qing dynasty. The modern definition that ting is "a building with a roof but without enclosing walls" (He, et al. 2015, 210) is closest to the use of ting in Ming private gardens.3

    從先,伴隨功能的變化,亭的結構形式經歷了漫長的演變。東周時期,亭作爲一種軍事防禦設施,其結構是一種高三丈的樓塔,而到了東漢因其驛站的功能,則可能演變成了複雜的院落。至六朝時期,亭成爲了一種地理標誌,亦是文人聚會的場所。而其位置則往往居於高処并成爲覽景佳處。到了代,亭開始進入宮苑,結構上演變成四面有牆的獨立居室,并且高不再作爲其必有的形式特點。到了代以後,亭則固定為休憩和賞景的園林建築。宋人簡亭為建築結構而合稱亭榭。在园林中,亭是因地制宜的獨體開放型建築。3

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 241.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 79.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 何. 2018. 辭源, 210.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: building type

How to Cite This Entry

CHEN Baolong 陈宝龙 et al., “ tíng” in Architectura Sinica last modified November 11, 2021, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000063.

Bibliography:

CHEN Baolong 陈宝龙 et al., “ tíng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published March 21, 2018. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000063.

About this Entry

Entry Title: tíng

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • CHEN Baolong 陈宝龙 and ZUO Lala 左拉拉, entry contributors, “ tíng

Additional Credit:

  • Editing, proofreading, data entry and revision by Tracy Miller
  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Preliminary research CMW 2021
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2021
  • English proofreading by Aurelia Campbell Tracy Miller
  • Chinese proofreading by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 ZUO Lala 左拉拉
  • Adding citations and notes by CHEN Baolong 陈宝龙

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