Literally meaning “pretend” or “simulated” ang, jia’ang refers to a bracket arm that appears to be a xia’ang visually, but does not function as a xia’ang structurally. Architectural historians have used jia’ang as a term in traditional Chinese architecture since the 1930s (Liang 1933，26). Usually it refers to a huagong in an eaves bracket set (wai yan dougong 外簷斗栱) with a shape of ang mouth (ang zui 昂嘴) on the outside. In most cases, there is a carved huatouzi 華頭子 underneath the jia'ang.4
Based on extant timber frame structures, such as the Sage Mother Hall (mid 11th century) in Jinci, we know that jia’ang were already being used in the Northern Song dynasty. It can be traced back even further, to the Southern Tang through a wooden building model discovered in a coffin in Baoying 寶應, Jiangsu (Zhou 2020, Li 1965). Jia’ang became popular in architecture after the Southern Song and became a standard form in the Ming and Qing dynasties. The ang mentioned in architectural literature from the Qing dynasty are all jia’ang (Liang 1981, 21-22).5
Some scholars extend the meaning of jia’ang to elements such as cha’ang 插昂 mentioned in the Yingzao fashi (Wang and Niu 1992, Cheng 1997, Li 2000, which is a small timber in the shape of an ang mouth, but which does not function as a lever arm. This view is not universally accepted (Su 1994, Feng 1995). Recently, a more generally accepted opinion is that cha’ang was a transitional form, which was used before jia’ang became standard (Wen 2013, Yu 2017).6
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- 1 KROLL. 2015. A Student's Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese, 193.
- 2 ZUO. 2019. Timber-Framed Architecture of the Lower Yangzi, 175.
- 3 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 45.
- 4 梁. 1933. 正定調查紀略, 26.
- 5 周. 2020. 样式与造作：宋金时期华北地区木构建筑假昂探析; 黎. 1965. 江苏宝应县经河出土南唐木屋; 梁. 1981. 清式營造則例, 21-22.
- 6 王. 1992. 河南焦作昭惠王行宫大殿调查; 程. 1997. 广州光孝寺大雄宝殿大木结构研究; 李. 2007. 霍州大堂与霍州州署的布局; 宿. 1994. 甘肃连城鲁土司衙和妙因、显教两寺调查记; 冯. 1995. 中国古代木构建筑的考古学断代; 温. 2013. 结合中日遗构探讨昂装饰性的演变; 喻. 2017. 论耍头拟昂现象与六铺作的缺失——以晋东南地区为例
Broad Match: bracketing
How to Cite This Entry
Bibliography:ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 et al., “ 假昂 jiǎ’áng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published March 16, 2021. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000166.
About this Entry
Entry Title: 假昂 jiǎ’áng
Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:
- Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and CAO Yiming 曹一鳴, entry contributors, “ 假昂 jiǎ’áng”
- Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
- Preliminary research CMW 2021
- Data entry, adding citation and gloss 2021 by ZOU Yuyang 鄒宇洋
- Data entry, adding links 2021 by ZHANG Xuliang 張序亮
- Peer review by ATTCAT 2021
- English proofreading by Aurelia Campbell Tracy Miller
- Chinese proofreading by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 ZUO Lala 左拉拉
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