jiǎnzhùzào 減柱造

https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000192

Terms

  • jianzhuzao (Pinyin without tones)
  • 減柱造 (Traditional Chinese)
  • 减柱造 (Simplified Chinese)
  • jiǎnzhùzào (Pinyin)
  • chien-chu-tsao (Wade-Giles)
  • column elimination (English)1
  • columns are omitted (English)2
  • column omission (English)3

Note (full)

    Jianzhuzao, literally translated as "reduced-column construction" or "column-elimination construction," is a term used to describe the arrangement of interior columns in traditional Chinese architecture. This term was not used in classical literature. Rather, it was first coined by architectural historians who conducted field investigations and wrote Chinese architectural history from the 1930s to 1960s. Generally, jianzhuzao refers to buildings with fewer interior columns than those with a full interior column grid aligned with the eaves pillars (Liang and Liu 1933; Guo 2009, 786). Some scholars, in accordance with the interpretation that there were two timber-frame structural systems (diange 殿閣/diantang 殿堂 and tingtang 廳堂) defined in Yingzao fashi, argued that only buildings with fewer interior columns than these two structural systems could have "column elimination" (Fu 2002). However, Chen Mingda, who used the two timber-frame structural systems as a standard to analyze extant buildings, opposed the use of the "jianzhu" neologism (Chen 1981, 4, 178-181).4

    In current literature on traditional Chinese architecture, jianzhuzao is considered one of the main architectural characteristics from the Song to Yuan dynasties, and was especially popular in the Jin dynasty. For both of the views on jianzhuzao mentioned above, Wenshu hall in Foguang Monastery 佛光寺文殊殿 (1137) is considered to be a typical example of jianzhuzao (Liu 1980, 174, 235; Fu 2002). The connection between jianzhu in the Jin dynasty and column distribution in the Song, Liao, and Yuan dynasties is an important issue discussed by architectural historians. The relationship between the column grid and timber frame construction more generally has captured greater attention (Liu 1980, Fu 2002, Guo 2009). Whether jianzhu is a creative innovation or a structural failure is still under debate (Luo 1953; Zhang 1979, 162; Guo 2009, 786). Another critical issue is the relationship between moving columns off the grid (yizhufa 移柱法) and column-elimination.5

    During his field trip to Datong in the 1930s, Liang Sicheng first noticed the that eleventh-twelfth century buildings had fewer interior columns than the official-style buildings from the Ming and Qing dynasties, whose interior columns aligned in number and placement with the eaves columns (Liang and Liu 1935). In the 1940s when Liang was writing the History of Chinese Architecture 中國建築史, he made further reference to the building plans described in the Yingzao fashi, including the dipan fencao 地盤分槽 and ceyang 側樣" of diange 殿閣 and tingtang 廳堂 in contrast to the regular column grid of Ming and Qing buildings. However, these comparisons drawn by Liang are still the initial assessment of the jianzhu phenomenon. In his book, the Sanqing Hall in Xuanmiao Guan in Suzhou 蘇州玄妙觀三清殿(1179)is considered a typical example of a structure with a regular column grid and is contrasted with the Wenshu Hall in Foguang Monastery 佛光寺文殊殿 as the typical example of column elimination (Liang 1998 rpt., 233).6

    Liang's opinion profoundly influenced the investigation and research of traditional Chinese architecture in the 1950s-1960s. In this period, the word jianzhuzao 減柱造 (column-elimination construction) emerged (Luo 1953). Jianzhufa (column-elimination method) and jianzhuzao (column-elimination construction) are interchangeable terms, both referring to an alternation of the number or the position of interior columns compared to the column grid formed by the eaves pillars (Qi et. 1954; Qi 1957). As research deepened, the discussion of both jianzhufa and jianzhuzao focused on the relationship between columns and the structural system, rather than only on the plan (Liu 1980; Chen 1981). The term jianzhuzao has been adopted by several editions of the textbook History of Chinese Architecture 中國建築史 and has become a generally accepted technical term (Pan 2004, 258-259; Pan 2009, 275).7

    減柱造是描述中國古代建築柱網佈置形式的術語,在1930年代至1960年代的中國古建築調查及建築史論述中逐漸形成。一般來說減柱造是指建築的室內柱網與規則形式,與依照建築物正面與山面簷柱形成的柱網相比較,使用了更少數量的柱的一種佈置方式(梁和劉 1933;郭 2009,786)。 也有學者認為《營造法式》規定了標準構架形式(殿閣廳堂),只有與之相比,使用了更少量柱的柱網配置才能稱為“減柱”(傅 2002)。而陳明達儘管針對具體案例,以《營造法式》為參照,區分標準與非標準構架與柱網形式,但反對使用“減柱造”這一概念(陳 1981,4,178-181)。5

    減柱造通常被認為是,尤其是代建築的重要特徵。無論採用上述兩種觀點的哪一種,五台佛光寺文殊殿(1137)都被認為是代表性案例(劉 1980,174,235;傅 2002)。代減柱與北宋代建築物的減柱做法的源流關係,以及這種柱網佈置與相應梁架形式的關係都是重要的討論話題(劉 1980,傅 2002,郭 2009);對這一做法的評價——例如是創新還是不合理的結構——也褒貶不一(羅 1953;中國建築史 1982,162;郭 2009,786)。與“減柱法”或“減柱造”類似的還有“移柱法”(劉 1980,9),後者的定義,及兩者間的關聯引發討論(祁 1979,張 1979)。8

    對減柱現象的關注,始于1930年代梁思成帶領營造學社成員進行的建築調查。被認為使用了“減柱之法”的建築物的共同特徵是,相較於時期殿內柱依照正面及山面簷柱形成的極為規整的柱網配置,殿內柱均有減少的現象(梁和劉 1933)。9

    至1940年代梁撰寫《中國建築史》,與1930年代僅從平面柱網配置及與建築比較不同的是,《營造法式》的地盤分槽與殿閣廳堂,側樣已成為重要參考。從其行文分析,仍表現出從平面到構架的思考方法。蘇州玄妙觀三清殿(1179)被視為柱網最規則者,而五臺佛光寺文殊殿(1137)是內柱減少的重要案例(梁 1998,233)。梁的觀點對1950-60年代的古建築調查有深刻影響,也正是在這一時期,出現“減柱造”(羅 1953)一詞。“減柱法”與“減柱造”同時使用,並被固定為術語(二者可以互換),用於描述特定的建築平面形式:即以建築物正面及山面簷柱形成的柱網為參照,室內柱減少或移位時,被稱為“減柱法”或“減柱造”。(祁 1957,23-29;祁 等 1954,2,5-84,161)隨著研究的深入,相關討論逐漸關注柱網分配與構架形式的整體關係,而非僅僅著重于平面的柱網配置(劉 1980,陳 1981)。“減柱造”也被數版《中國建築史》教材所採用,成為被普遍接受的中國古建築術語。(潘 2004,258-259;潘 2009,275)。10

Works Cited

Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.

  • 1 MILLER. 2007. The Divine Nature of Power: Chinese Ritual Architecture at the Sacred Site of Jinci, 108-111.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 2 LIANG. 2005. Chinese architecture: a pictorial history, 72.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 3 FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 358.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 4 梁. 1933. 大同古建築調查報告Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 郭. 2009. 中国古代建筑史, 786.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 傅. 2002. 宋式建筑的构架特点与“减柱”问题Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 1981. 營造法式大木作研究, 178-181.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 5 刘. 1980. 中国古代建筑史, 174,235;9.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 傅. 2002. 宋式建筑的构架特点与“减柱”问题Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 羅. 1953. 雁北古建築的勘察Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 傅. 2002. 宋式建筑的构架特点与“减柱”问题Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 张. 1979. 山西元代殿堂的大木结构Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 郭. 2009. 中国古代建筑史, 786.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 6 梁. 1933. 大同古建築調查報告Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 梁. 1998. 中国建筑史, 233.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 7 羅. 1953. 雁北古建築的勘察Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 祁. 1954. 兩年來山西省新發現的古建築, 2, 5-84, 161.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 祁. 1957. 河北省新城縣開善寺大殿, 162.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 刘. 1980. 中国古代建筑史, 786.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 1981. 營造法式大木作研究Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 潘. 2009. 中国建筑史, 275.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 8 刘. 1980. 中国古代建筑史, 174, 235; 9.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 傅. 2002. 宋式建筑的构架特点与“减柱”问题Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 羅. 1953. 雁北古建築的勘察Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 1982. 中国建筑史, 162.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 郭. 2009. 中国古代建筑史, 786.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 祁. 1979. 对少林寺初祖庵大殿的初步分析Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 张. 1979. 山西元代殿堂的大木结构Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 9 梁. 1933. 大同古建築調查報告Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record
  • 10 梁. 1998. 中国建筑史, 233.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 羅. 1953. 雁北古建築的勘察Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 祁. 1954. 兩年來山西省新發現的古建築, 2, 5-84, 161.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 祁. 1957. 河北省新城縣開善寺大殿, 162.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 刘. 1980. 中国古代建筑史, 786.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 陳. 1981. 營造法式大木作研究Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record; 潘. 2009. 中国建筑史, 275.Link to Zotero Bibliographic Record

Broad Match: building frame

How to Cite This Entry

LI Ke 李珂 et al., “ 減柱造 jiǎnzhùzào” in Architectura Sinica last modified November 28, 2021, https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000192.

Bibliography:

LI Ke 李珂 et al., “ 減柱造 jiǎnzhùzào.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published September 16, 2021. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000192.

About this Entry

Entry Title: 減柱造 jiǎnzhùzào

Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:

  • Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
  • ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
  • LI Ke 李珂, ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, and BAI Ying 白穎, entry contributors, “ 減柱造 jiǎnzhùzào

Additional Credit:

  • Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
  • Preliminary research CMW 2021
  • Peer review by ATTCAT 2021
  • Data entry and adding citation(s) by CHEN Baolong 陈宝龙

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