The term dingtougong 丁頭栱, literally meaning T-shaped (half) bracket arm, is only found in the Yingzao fashi (1103). In this text, dingtougong is categorized as a type of huagong 華栱 (blossoming bracket arm) measuring half the length of a standard huagong, which is inserted into a pillar or a bracket cluster. If it is inserted into a corner of the interior of a building, it can be called xiaxugong 蝦須栱 (lit. “shrimp antenna bracket arm” YZFS 4.3a). As a type of huagong, dingtougong functions as a corbel, projecting outward to support the components above it (Xu and Guo, 1984, 114). 5
Scholars have sometimes referred to any half bracket-arms, including those inserted directly into beams, as dingotugong. However, in recent years, some scholars have raised objections to this generalized use of the term and believe that, following the Yingzao fashi, only the half-huagong used to support the beams and pillars under the zhaqian 劄牽 and rufu 乳栿 should be called dingtougong (Lin, 2018, see figure). Based on the broader understanding of dingtougong, it is believed that there are many existing examples, which are found mostly in the Yangzi delta and Fujian province. 6
Architectural historians have worked to classify different types of dingtougong (Xu and Guo, 1984, 8; Tang, 2012). Many believe that the dingtougong in the Yingzao fashi show southern Chinese regional characteristics, especially from the Yangzi delta area. Because dingtougong is a common component used in the outer eaves of vernacular chuandou 穿斗 style architecture in southern China, some scholars suggest that the appearance of dingtougong in the Yingzao fashi reflects the influence of southern vernacular architecture on northern official architecture. This assertion challenges previously held ideas that northern official architecture influenced the technological developments of southern vernacular architecture (Fu, 1981; Zhang, 2022). 7
Ink inscriptions found on components of the Main Hall in Zhenru Monastery (Shanghai, Yuan Dynasty) identify the dingtougong as “shangmiaotou”上杪頭 (“upper bracket arm end”). In shangmiaotou comprising two layers, the upper layer is called shangmiaotou and the lower layer is called xiamiaotou 下杪頭 (Shanghai shi wenwu baoguan weiyuanhui, 1966). This inscription is a valuable record of how craftsmen referred to dingtougong. According to the Yingzao fashi, miaogong 杪栱 can be a synonym for huagong. Thus the craftsmen did not create another name for the half bracket-arm inserted into pillars, but regarded it as huagongtou 華栱頭 (“blossoming bracket-arm end”), or one-half of a huagong. This usage is consistent with that of huagongtou in the Yingzao fashi. See also: chagong 插栱 8
基於對“丁頭栱”的泛化理解，被認為使用了丁頭栱的現存實例較多，多見於江南、福建地區。學者對多樣化的“丁頭栱”分類並展開研究。（徐和郭 1984，8；唐 2012）也有學者認為《法式》中的丁頭栱具有濃郁的南方尤其江南地域特色，是南方穿斗式構架中的常見構件，體現了後者對前者的影響，進一步反映了北與南、官式與地方在技術交流中的反驅現象。（傅 1981，張 2002）並引申出“丁頭栱做法源於江南”的觀點（張 2002，148, 153）。 7
Any information without attribution has been created following the Syriaca.org editorial guidelines.
- 1 陳. 2010. 《營造法式》辭解, 16.
- 2 FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 353.; GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 32.
- 3 GUO. 2002. A Visual Dictionary of Chinese Architecture, 32.
- 4 FU. 2017. Traditional Chinese Architecture: Twelve Essays, 353.
- 5 李. 2009. 營造法式(故宫藏抄本), 4.2b-4.3a.; 徐. 1984. 宋《营造法式》术语汇释, 114.
- 6 林. 2018. 《营造法式》中的丁头栱及其相关概念辨析——兼论日韩建筑中所见的插栱和丁头栱, 88-102.
- 7 徐. 1984. 宋《营造法式》术语汇释, 8.; 唐. 2012. 两宋时期的木造现象及其工匠意识探析——从保国寺大殿与《营造法式》的构件体系比较入手; 傅. 1981. 福建的几座宋代建筑及其与日本鎌仓“大佛样”建筑的关系; 张. 2002. 《营造法式》的技术源流及其与江南建筑的关联探析; 张. 2002. 中国江南禅宗寺院建筑, 148, 153.
- 8 上海市文物保管委员会. 1966. 上海市郊元代建筑真如寺正殿中发现的工匠墨笔字
Broad Match: bracketing
How to Cite This Entry
Bibliography:ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 et al., “ 丁頭栱 dīngtóugǒng.” In Architectura Sinica, edited by Tracy Miller. Entry published May 28, 2022. https://architecturasinica.org/keyword/k000216.
About this Entry
Entry Title: 丁頭栱 dīngtóugǒng
Authorial and Editorial Responsibility:
- Tracy Miller, editor, Architectura Sinica
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净, associate editor, Architectural Terminology
- ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 and RUAN Jing 阮景, entry contributors, “ 丁頭栱 dīngtóugǒng”
- Website coordination by Yuh-Fen Benda
- Preliminary research CMW M22
- Peer review by ATTCAT 2022
- English proofreading by Aurelia Campbell Tracy Miller
- Chinese proofreading by ZHUGE Jing 諸葛净 ZUO Lala 左拉拉
- Initial research and revision by RUAN Jing 阮景
- Data entry by LI Zhixian 李知賢
- Entry of revised data and links by LI Zhixian 李知賢
Copyright and License for Reuse
Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.